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Subramania Bharati io 1919 




POEMS 

Subramania Bharati 

-4 Selection f tom BharatVs Poems in Tamil original, 
Roman transcription and English translation 


Editors : 

Indira Arjun Dev 
Santo Datta 
Arjun Dev 


ftnni s 



NC^RT 

flFrftwT sTf^rorn 

National Council of Educational Research and Training 



December 1982 
Agrahayan 1904 


P.D. 5T— SD 


© National Council of Educational Research and Training, 1982 


Illustrations ’-i iStintb Datta 
Cover Design : Santo Datta 
C.P. Tandon 


Published at the Publication Depattment by V.K. Pandit, Secretary, 
National Council of Educational Research and Training, Sri Autobindo 
Marg, New Delhi-H0016 and Printed at Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 
A/104, Mayapuri, Industrial Area, Phase II, New Delhi-lia064. 



FOREWORD 


Subramania Bharati stands out as one of the outstanding poets of our 
country. He was also an eminent writer and fighter for India’s freedom. 
He endeavoured through his poetry to free human mind from the shackles 
of supe^stition^ outmoded customs and social evils. His anti-imperialist 
stance and his concern for the socially oppressed formed major themes of 
his poetry. As a poet with vision and foresight, he could visualize the 
social and political structure of free India long before India won her 
freedom. He was a staunch believer in the advancement of science and 
technology. ^ 

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 
brings out this first bilingual edition of Bharati’s poems to commemorate 
the birth centenary of the poet, - which falls on 11 December 1982. It 
is symbolic of the Council’s appreciation of Bharati’s contribution to 
national life. It is our homage to the memory of an illustrious son of 
India whose writings have inspired generations of our people. 

The bilingual publication includes 31 selected poems in original Tamil;' 
their transcription in Roman script, and their English translation, besides 
a short sketch of the poet’s life. The poems have been selected keeping 
m view the young readers of 14-18 age group. The selection is broadly 
representative of Bharati’s poetry, covering his patriotic verses, poems 
on national integration and education, poems against casteism, untoucha- 
bility, social evils and oppression, poems written for children, and 
devotional songs. Only two major poems, Kuyil Pattu and Panchali 
Sabatham, have been excluded. 

We have included the Roman transcription of the Tamil poems so that 
the non-Tamil readers can read them aloud, recite and sing Bharati’s 
poems in Tamil even without knowing the language, and also appreciate 
the beauty of the Tamil language and script. 

1 would like to record my appreciation of the work done by Shrimati 
Indira Arjun Dev who made the selection of Bharati’s poems and pre- 
pared the first draft of their English translation and transcription in 
Roman. Thanks are due to Shri Santo Datta and Shri Arjun Dev who 



contributed substantially in preparing this volume and the final draft of 
the English translation. I also thank Dr. M. G. Chaturvedi tor his help 
in preparing the draft of the Roman transcription. 

The Council is also grateful to the eminent Tamil scholars and edu- 
cationalists who reviewed the manuscript and piovided guidance in the 
selection of .poems and their transcription and translation. We have 
also benefitted from Dr. S. Ramakrishnan's translations in his Bharati : 
Poet Patriot Prophet. 

I would also like to acknowledge the work of Shri Santo Datta in 
visualizing and designing this book, the first of its kind brought out by 
the Council. 1 also thank Shri C.P. Tandon for his assistance in the work. 

NCERT will be grateful for any comments, criticism and suggestions 
from the young readers on any aspect of the present volume. 


New Delhi 
December 1982. 


T. N. Dhar 
Joint Director 
National Council of 
Educational Research 
and Training 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 


The preparation of this volume has been made possible owing to the 
help of a number of scholars. Our thanks are due, particularly to the 
following : 

Dr. S. Ramakrishnan, Tamil scholar, Madurai ; Dr. Vedmani Manuel, 
Professor of Education, Kerala University, Trivandrum ; Dr. S. V. Subra- 
manian, Director, International Institute of Tamil Studies, Madras ; 
Dr. T. Muthukannappan, Tamil scholar, Madras ; Dr. K. Arumugam, 
Professor of Tamil, Delhi University. Delhi ; Dr. V. R. Jagannathan, 
Professor, Central Institute of Hindi, New Delhi ; Dr. K. A. Jamuna, 
Lecturer, Janaki Devi Mahavidyalaya, New Delhi ; Dr. N. Sundaram, 
Head, Department of Hindi, Presidency College, Madras ; and Shri 
A. Anantachar. 




CONTENTS 


Foreword '' 

Acknowledgement vn 

C. Subramania Bharati — A Biographical Sketch 

Scheme of transcription xvi 

Poems* 

1. Vandemataram 3 

2. Our Land of Sweet Tamil 9 

3. The Precious Flag of Mother India 15 

4. Bharat Desh 23 

5. Out, Out, Old India ! And Welcome ! New India 1 33 

6. Liberation 37 

7. A Pallu of Freedom 43 

8. No Fears 49 

9. New Russia 53 

10. Mahatma Gandhi 59 

11. A Prayer to the Goddess of Freedom 61 

12. In Praise of the Goddess of Learning 63 

13- Nandalala 71 

14. The Flute of Krishna 73 

15. Kannamma, My Beloved- 1 77 

16. Kannamma, My Beloved-2 81 

17. Kannan, My Lover 87 

18. A Piece of Land 95 

19. Tell Me, O ! Sivasakti 101 

20. Allah 103 

21 . Jesus Christ 107 

22. Bharat Samudayam 109 


*The titles and page numbers of poems given here refer to the English translation. 
On the left hand page facing the English translation are given the Tamil original 
and Its transcription in Roman. 



( X ) 


23. 

Song for the Child 

119 

24. 

Women’s Liberation 

127 

25. 

Women’s Liberation Dance 

129 

26. 

New Women 

133 

27. 

The Drum 

137 

28. 

Labour 

145 

29. 

New Fortune Teller 

147 

30. 

The Drum of Victory 

153 

31. 

Long Live Chaste Tamil 

155 

Notes 

15'7 





G. SUBRAMANIA BHARATI 
{A Biographical Sketch) 


Subramania Bharati was one of the outstanding figures who moulded 
the consciousness of our people during the period of our national awaken- 
ing and struggle for freedom. He was a nationalist agitator, organizer 
and journalist, social reformer, story writer, essayist and, above all, a 
poet — one of the pioneers of the Tamil renaissance. 

His poetry marks the beginning of a new era in the history of Tamil 
literature. He represented and nourished all that was best in India’s 
cultural heritage, and responded to what was the most advanced in our 
nationalist movement. 

A Mahakavi, a great poet, he was the poet of resurgent nationalism par 
excellence- S. Srinivasa Iyengar, an eminent nationalist leader, in his 
introduction to an anthology of Bharati’s patriotic poems in 1922, a year 
after the poet’s death, wrote, “The new spirit of Indian nationalism that is 
effecting such a wonderfhl transformation of Indian life and character finds 
in Tamil land its expression in the late C. Subramania Bharati. The gifted 
poet has gathered with loving hands the sweetest and most radiant flowers 
of India’s truest mind, head and soul and made of them a garland of 
imperishable songs to be laid at the feet of Bharat Mata. Seldom has 
the Muse’s inspiration been as authentic and pure and passionate as in 
Bharati.” 

Subramania was born at Ettayapuram in the Tirunelveli district of 
Tamil Nadu on 1 1 December 1882. His father, Chinnaswamy Aiyar, an 
employee of the local zamindar (referred to as Rajah), wanted his son to 
study mathematics and science to become an engineer. Bharati, however, 
would play truant from school and roam in the fields, absorbed in nature, 
listen to the folk songs of the peasants, or study the works of Tamil poets. 
At the age of seven he began to compose songs. When he was eleven, he 
was honoured at a gathering of scholars with the title of ‘Bharati’, one of 
the nhmes of the Goddess of Learning, for his proficiency in compo&ing 
verses instantly. The title became a part of the name by which he has 
since been known. 



( xii ) 


Bharati’s father died in 1898, and he had to go to Benaras to live under 
the care of his aunt who had settled there. He resumed his schooling and 
passed his matriculation examination in the first division. He also learned 
Hindi, Sanskrit and, later, many other languages. While in Benaras:, 
Bharati was exposed to new ideas and came in contact with many 
patriotic young men. He gave up the traditional tuft of hair on the back 
of his head, grew a moustache, and began to wear a turban and a coat 
which were common in north India in those days. 

Bharati returned to his home town at the invitation of the ‘Rajah’ of 
Ettayapuram as the court poet. However, the atmosphere in the court 
was too stifling for Bharati to stay there long. In early 1904, he left for 
Madurai where be taught Tamil in a school for three months. From 
Madurai, he moved to Madras and joined the Swadesamitran, the only 
Tamil daily of that time, founded and edited by the pioneer of nationa- 
list journalism in Madras, G. Subramania Iyer. 

Working on the editorial staff of a newspaper brought Bharati in close 
touch with political developments, national and international. He also 
came in contact with a number of youngi’ radicals, including the famous 
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai and Subramania Siva. Following the partition 
of Bengal, when the nationalist movement entered a new phase, Bharati 
became one of the pioneers of the Swadeshi movement in the South. In 
1906, he attended the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. 
At this time he had a brief meeting with Sister Nivedita and was deeply 
influenced by her. In 1 907, he attended the Surat session of the Congress 
along with one hundred other ‘extremist’ delegates from Tamil Nadu. 
There, he came under the spell of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the leader of the 
‘extremist’ section in the Congressi- 

Bharati, With the help of his friends, started a weekly Tamil journal, 
India, which carried as its motto the French Revolution’s slogan : 
“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.’’ The journal was an instrument for 
radical nationalist propaganda. Besides Bharati's own writings — poems, 
and polemical and satirical articles — the journal published the contribu- 
tions of V.O. Chidambaram Pillai (popularly known as VOC) and Siva, 
and translations of the speeches and writings of Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal 



( xiil ) 


and Aurobindo Ghose. It was due to the work of Bharati and his radical 
friends that the domination of the ‘moderates’ in Tamil Nadu was broken, 
and the nationalist movement there brought into the mainstream of the 
‘extremist’ politics in the country 

The British government was alaimed at the growing popularity of the 
‘extremist’ leaders and their programme. Detei mined to suppress the 
rising tide of nationalism, it resorted to repressive measures. Tilak and 
many others were arrested, and many newspapers and journals proscribed. 
Warrants were issued for the arrest of the editor of India. Though 
Bharati was the leal editor of the journal, /ndm had a ‘dummy’ editor 
who was arrested. Bharati was persuaded to escape to Pondicherry, which 
was under the French colonial rule, to carry on the publication of the 
journal from there. In October 1908, the journal resumed publication 
from Pondicherry. 

Bharati spent ten years of his life m Pondicherry as an exile. Though 
outside the direct clutches of the British police, he was harassed by the 
police spies and anti-social agents employed by the British. After about 
one and half years, India had to close down, because its circulation in 
British India was banned. Bharati had also started a daily newspaper, 
Vijaya, which too had to close down. Warrants were issued against 
him by implicating him in the murder of Ash, an unpopular British 
collector. ' However, in many ways, these ten years were some of the 
most fruitful years in Bharati's life. He was able to bring out India 
and the daily Vijaya for some time. He also brought out a Tamil 
monthly, Karmayogi, and an English magazine, Bala Bharata, for a brief 
spell. Although after 1910 he could not edit any journal propagating 
his political views, he contrived to publish his journalistic and other 
writings in many newspapers and journals. In fact, some of his best 
works, including the three great poems Panchali Sabatham (Draupadi’s 
Vow), Kantian Pattu (Kannan Songs) and KuyilPattu (Song of the Kuyil), 
and his translation of the Gita were written and published during this 
period. 

Bharati had many friends and admirers in Pondicherry also. Parti- 
cularly significant was the close friendship which developed between him 



( Xiv ) 


and the two great revolutionaries of the period — Aurobindo Ghose and 
V.V.S. Iyer. Both arrived in Pondicherry after Bharati — the former after 
his acquittal m the Maniktola Bomb Case, and the latter from London 
after a scries of daring escapes. 

Towards the end of 1918, after the First World War was over, Bharati 
and his Swadeshi friends who had escaped to Pondicherry left for 
Madras. Bharati was arrested on the strength of an old warrant and 
detained for about a month in Cuddalore jail. On coming out, he 
joined the Sv/adesamitran again as a sub-editor and continued to write 
and publish his poems, articles and other writings. 

Bharati’s health had been shattered during his stay in Pondicherry as a 
self-exile. An unusual incident contributed to his premature death. He 
used to feed a temple elephant with bananas whenever he visited the place 
for worship. One day when Bharati, not knowing that it had turned 
roguish, approached the elephant, it suddenly dashed him to the, ground. 
He was bedridden because of the shock and the effects of the injury. He 
also suffered a stomach ailment in this state of poor health. He died on 
11 September 1921, at the age of 39. 

The variety of .Bharati’s writings, both in prose and poetry, is astoun- 
ding. Bharati is unanimously acclaimed for havjng rejuvenated Tamil 
literature and for raising Ahe status of modern Tamil. According to Dr. 
S. Raraakrishnan. a reputed Tamil scholar, Bharati '‘freed Tamil from 
the stranglehold of pedantic pundits and brought it to the market place.” 
Only a few of Bharati’s works have been mentioned here, and the very 
few which have been included in this volume (some of which are short 
excerpts) cover only some aspects of his writings. 

His songs not only aroused the people from their stupor but also be- 
came their battle cry in the struggle for freedom, and for building a just 
social order, free from exploitation and oppression of every kind. 
Bharati’s most creative years were during the period 1905 to 1921, from 
the time when the phase of petitioning and appealing to the British rulers’ 
sense of justice ended, to the time when the nationalist movement finally 
emerged as a mass movement. 



( XV •) 


There were many ups and downs during this period so far as the 
national movement is concerned. Bharati, however, never had any doubts 
about the triumph of the people and the attainment of independence He 
composed songs celebrating not only the achievement of independence, but 
also the beginning of a new era in our history in which all inequalities 
had been abolished ; he even listed these inequalities 

In his patriotic songs, and songs of human equality, Bharati has few 
parallels among Indian poets. He wrote scores of songs on the glory of 
Mother India, the unity of the Indian people irrespective of caste and cre- 
ed, the greatness of the Tamil language, women’s emancipation, education, 
his vision of a new India, the industrial and technological development of 
the country, the struggle against all forms of oppression. At the same 
time, fully aware of world developments, he gloried in the struggles of other 
peoples against oppression in other parts of the world. He celebrated the 
anniversary of the French Revolution (he had adopted its slogan as the 
motto for his India), supported the Irish struggle for freedom, and gloried 
in the success qf the Russian Revolution (on which event he was one 
of the first poets to write a poem). 

Bharati, during the short span of his life, became a poet of freedom 
and equality — the freedom of India and of other countries under foreign 
domination and equality of people everywhere— because he believed that 
only by attaining freedom and equality could men live in peace and 
happiness on earth. q 

A note to the young reader 

The present volume comprises 31 poems of Bharati, some in full and 
.the rest in a few selected stanzas. The original stanza numbers are indica- 
ted in the right hand margins. 

The use of diacritical marks, though irksome, is unavoidable in tran- 
scribing one language and script to another script to ensure minimum 
essential fidelity to the original. An attempt has been made to reduce 
their use to the minimum. The young reader will find it easy to recite 
and sing the transcribed poems if she/he grasps the transcription scheme 
and also takes the help of Tamil-knowing teachers and class-mates. 



A SCHEME OF BROAD PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION 
USED IN THIS BOOK. 

VOWELS 

a a i 1 u u e e 

gg g) g> gpsrr *“0 

^ 3ff 3fr 3ft 

ai o o au li 

CONSONANTS 


a 

<z 

Ihl 


(S 

i_ 


L. 

stror 




sp 



'sr 

3r 

J 


!■ 


cT 



k 

g 

ng 

ch j 

nj 

t 


d 

n 

t 


d 



u 

U U) 

OJ 


P- 

so 

su 


SP 



T 

7 

? T 

T 


T 







n 

P 

b m 

y 


r 

1 

V 


zh 




err 

JO 

65r 

srv 


Sl% 

am 






55 

I 

fr 



T 







1 

r 

n 

s 


sh 

h 





Note : The pronunciation of « and have other shades in certain words 
and contexts, <i is pronounced as S W) when it occurs in the beginning 
of a word or between two vowels. In such cases the transcription 
adopted will follow the pronunciation in English and Hindi. 





2 


I. 


iLiT^jih STsi}r(?uiiiii — nni/issfr 
uiTjStsv^i ;ST$i»uj 6M6OTrfi0gjti sraJrCuTii). 

(cujsQl^ft) 

SjTjS iQ;sr^aft(r UT<?!rnrti — m^uuf 

ggsiruDii sTiij^surjiru^fflir 

Csu^ujjriruSlgyii ^sSrQjo ^ ^sSTjSl 

(Sfugji 0<su4i^«orirTu9g)/ii> ^sStGjd . I 

( su ; b < d ^) 


1. VANDEMATARAM 


Vandemataram enbom — engaj 
Manila-t t&yai vanangudum enb5m. 

Jati madangalai-p parbm — uyar 
janmam it - tesattil eydinarayin 
Vediyarayinum onre — anri 

_ veru kulattinar ayinum onre. 


(Vande) 


1 

^Vande) 



1. VANDEMATARAM 


Let us chant ‘Vandemataram’. 

Let us pray to Mother India. 

We care not for caste or creed; 
be they Brahmins or not, 

they are great, because they are sons of this blessed 

Let us chant ‘Vandemataram’. 

Let us pray to Mother India. 



4 


pFsarij ustD/DiuffaCoSirguii — 

STib(ipi-sir 6\jiT^jb^fhjdS^uL/sa’ir \^m(^(^ ‘ 

ifsar^^ijriTiLJ siS10su(r<§!rT? _ iS/d 

(Sufsb'Lisv) ^i&t^scbyiuuiTGjjr^ 2 

e_fflBr£q-fBJ(a) — STsnfln) 

^rarsijflujt L|*«U, «TSor<Br ;S^? *— gfif -, . ,. . 

^TuSlsor 6 uuS1/d»5Isu tSlpfiG^wr — .}Su?(i/)«fr;, ■ ' .. ., ■ 

(<UJ6G;a} 

' '” ' ' '- '•••■ ’> ' 3 !’-‘ci,' >'! 1 

■ -= '■- 1-1 


Tnapparaiyargalenum — avar 

emmudan vazhdingiruppavar anro? 

Chinattarai viduvard ? — pira 

desattar p61 pala tingizhaipparo ? 2 

• , '•• , (Vande) 

Ayiram undingu jati — enif ' . . i, , 

anniyar yandu pugal enna niti ? — or 

Tayin.-vayitril plrandor — tammul , 

chaiK^ai seyidalum sagodarar anro ? ' > - 3 

^ (Vande) 



'5 


Pariahs, so-caUecJ-low bdili;’'''' t'*’-' s c ;i 7 i 

don’t th^y ’fi5(t6.«'Wi'th 'dS’" 

in this country?i'‘'=:"''. " (r i,>,’ 

Woulrfibey'-bteomd fdr^ii|0'er^itke*th^,iG-ftifife'^&?'il-' 
Wou4d“^ey harm us as the aliens do? 

Let us c^ianl ‘VancWmaUinim'. '^7'*^ * f a , , 

Let us pr% to Mother India. ' ■ 2 

o „ . jii •i.'iL'S: ;4.i.iL"4S) 

Here we ha^sicdistiis-rbyll^wsajrdK £«< <rr « !;{’.Lv.‘n\n 

bhPviZhat right have the foreigners to intrude here? 

Even if we quarrel among ^irselves, 
are we not children of the same mother? 

Are we not brothers? ... , 

ar.'Sfi!i«u - ‘.'/nsR'/ nbinj crrnO 

Let us chant Vandemataram7_ 'V . , 

f . . vV.ini -■• fSiunnav JchibiTit'l non"3sjia 

Let us, pray to Mother India, , , „ . 5 




CSbfrfiYl 


iit'V >j'.;SiMr,mjire mq lahfif.v rnanSn;. 

j'KnunrtA ”■ n'un'i'f.rn nbit.iij!’.'’ rf'fibiisrtS 
ofsi! gi ;y u ti oq Jitiioj .bn k n i i i J n t i;vL'.( 
Ib'rivfr nbaqqnM 



6 


LJLLL_ir6b suiryfGsu — fiihiS^ 

^^gfissiw jSiii<£l^ c3t&ir«j(r(&0ij) 

(SjSf^jSt— cb GeuaHsrQth — 

(^Tssrw su^^rA) dlsir ^ic^GIdB^ (Ssutf^i^u)? 4 

(nj;6(S^) 


sTijUfUi ajriLjJbj£iC$Gu3g)iui _ fiiiiBA 

yjr6uifiji0U) jB9sc Qur^sur^ih. 

(tfiiluj^ Gsiri^iLidi turffiGsurih — n7|^sb 

cyiCiu^ (esirif. (ifi(^siDU)iLnb stf^CSsuiru). 5 

(tuJbGfi) 


O 


Onru pattal undu vazhve — nammil 
otrumai nmgil anaivarkkum tazbve 

Nanridu terndidal vendum — inda 

jn^am vandal pin namakkedu vendum? 4 

(Vande) 

Eppadam vaittidu menum ■ — nammil 
yavarkkum anda nilai poduvagum. 

Muppadu kddiyum vazhvom — vlzhil 

muppadu kodi muzhumaiyum vizhvom. 5 

(Vande) 


O 



7 


Unity is strength. 

When we abandon it 

we debase ourselves in the eyes of others. 

Let us try to understand this truth. 

Once we attain this wisdom 
we don’t need anything else. 

Let us chant ‘Vandemataram’. 

Let us pray to Mother India. 4 

Whatever may happen to us 
will be common to all of us. 

If we live, all the thirty crores of us will live. 

If we fall, all the thirty crores of us will go under. 

Let us chant ‘Vandemataram’. 

Let us pray to Mother India. 5 



2. Qffi5^i£ljp 


'r! I, J 


v;.. i!) '-// 


'?i;H i 

I' ' f y 


Qa'jB'Siiltp “‘^v 

G^6ir syjjB^ uifkj^Wir^stjfltS^'— "st'fiijiisfr ‘ i* ’ 
^jhsji^tuf fiirQi—sarfl <Su<j<#lfejjf)i!c 6 b — ’' '•' ‘'•'‘■■'i‘‘* * 
i51pA@gj ' ■'■-'i' jv,l 

.'’sii'"i;'i'nifii, (i'i'f.V'' 

^(3BT5^[fl Q^SOT0U«Kir&!Sfc/"Un59^}?®(,?Vn»J®i^iPj ;>I. ><.J 
<B«Kiri_(§;S'rt fisnsusrouj Quff ^&aar — sissr 

(Slds^uj 5^3)J usoCSeuiTL ■— *■ 

Si«rf ®<F4?4i* ’■‘; '* ■-'’ '■*'"3 


.i9-jin(j oiT iliA? 

2. 


rV} ;o £]•;!.!,; o^r ib J-f/i ■V// 'ff 


;>i.5',.riJ.,iJ;!5c.l4 <■>3, /C£q afj 3 jJ 


Sentamizh nadenum podinile — inba-t 
ten vandu payudu kadinile — engal 
Tandaiyar nadenra pechc^ile — oru 
Sakti pirakkucffi 


O (Sentamizh) 


„ X 

Kaviri tenpennaf 

kandador vaiy©po'fin8&h|^ — ena 
Meviya aru pala 

meni chezhitta Tan^hnadu 


(Sentamizh) 



OUR 

— uA>A<f« rK^3">'5 '^V 


. *t :v ,‘ii' 


* l.* 




:{‘C 


/ Whenever they ptt,er;{^^^d,.Q^Cs,wee;t 
jr 4 ;.',,>v^^eit: honey is poured into oiir ears. 

Whenever they mention the land of our forefathers, 
we breathe in a new ^i'eiigth".y‘-|'’’vV,'j’*, 'fctfe'. 

Whenever ttie^llitfer^'liWn^'^il’' 


sweet honey is poured'itftd.oufiears.K^frM «r.5{f 

fi 'S5»?'V»- di(ry,i;<niQsii' 

]f4p^^^e§g^tiful, most fertile" is tnis our land, 

where* flow the Kaveri, Pennai, Porunai, 
and the Vaigai, famed for her Tamil lore. 

Whenever they utter ‘Land of sweet Tamil’ 


sweet honey is pom?j|Jinto 

iih/jv- ■■ in^irii.1^ iys;? fjiBjiJr- 

fUj't.iiijq •• 'jyiBbi'.w.v! inmuni niWji[ES/i 
C ifMndsmjiT u-ujliBbijl 


dsraj’q - ■ i(fafi-'55fsimr:T 'vt£;4 

BUjsr(^ ubiifiiktfrti'.T /Jjaciiq .'iPdrui.S 

mKnnni ■ - niJrmilli> ijfiivIn.'ebjvIsH 



10 


igsofi^eaiir^ (Si_60 gfj-^jSCSec — ;^«irp 

jEl^;SUl ;SCViU) Q^IU 0Leif) CTSUSItU — sui— 
uirsuAjsiir (^eirjoii ^sy0j^fiDi_(Suj — 

maAruj.® d0t_(40ife 5 

(<Sl«=;fe;6cSy3) 

<S6\}S)S} — LjOUpi 

iSLbuair iSfijbfi — jBsbfts 

uAiaSl^LCTuSlsar fir jtfiir^Ssir^uisimih 

uTQ/r/i0iij eiSTfiii 6 


Nilattiraikkadal orattile — ninru 

nittam tavam seyi Kumari ellai — vada 
Malayan kunram ivatridaiye — pugazh 

mandi-k kidakkum Tamizhnadu 5 

(Sentamizh) 

Kaivi siranda Tamizhnadu — pugazh 

Kamban piranda Tamizhnadu — nalla 
Palvidamayina sattirattin — manam 

parengum visum Tamizhnadu 6 

(Sentamizh) 



11 


Between the sotithern shore, washed by the sea, 
where the Virgin Goddess performs penances for ever, 
and the northern hills of Thirumalai, 
lies the Tamil land replete with glory. 

Whenever they utter ‘Land of sweet Tamil’ 
sweet honey is poured into our ears. 5 

This is the land of deep learning: 
the great poet Kamban was bom here. 

Birthplace of various Shastras, 
renowned in the whole world. 

Whenever they utter ‘Land of sweet Tamil’ 
sweet honey is poured into our ears. 6 



n 

siisfr(sij5ajsar, .,.5 „ , ^ ., ,, r^ 

<5/rfrc|5Lb <#lsuuu^<Bir;^j_!^uiS*.CB(|ijf — > r 

^irib j [‘‘^J 

>' >'.‘L' i 'vi! ■''■*»]. i.’ii'.jo''. -‘i v'jnufi :;.'y’A',; 

‘j.ri^ .!>, •',!•!’ I 

'. I'K? '•at.! ; nodrn’j; ei/-’! "j4j 

j'Uu' r'jv 

-Lito'.v ai’odvv ddl id iiMf.'i" -r ,f’ 
i:3'.)v<.-; 'Ic bfjfi. (■ 'S13i) r'V-jf!')*,; /i' 

'■■' .i-h'"' iiK,. oii(. t.i'ni.!OC; «;t VMod 




13 


This our land gave^the'%)rl<i, the great ;Valli;var 
and won renown everywhere. 

This our land created, 

I _ . I r * ^ . (I ' , .‘L 5 , ' i’'( ' '' y' 

the gem of an epic Sil'dppadikarpm. . , 

, Whenever they utter ‘Land of sweet Tamil’ ' ' 
sweet honey is poured into . ouj ear, Si, ; , ; ,,i ■ ■ ,.X 

. I . - i (ai ; i, ‘ i i’\ i ‘ V 




14 


3. ^rru!S)«OT LnstRrflaQarrif 


;aTu51«5r icsrofiAQa/r/jj. uirfit I -r 3 i 6 iD;£^ 
fiir^JS^ USOofl^Bgl LjX^JB^L- OJTlff I 

(;»iruSls4r) 

dsiru^^sdr <£i^ jS/bflJsv <xrsiaFf — srn^^iii 
«Tffljar0ii 6i?jr/r Qu0;64l0* <9h.Ll.L_ib, 
jBihupii^iFlujf ^|6ij6i?irff ; — ^s^bjassir 

jbW^iiSlif dairu).uSlft9T<s tXSLiuirir. 4 

(ift(ra5isijr) 


3. TAYIN MANIKKOPI 


Tayin manikkodi parir — adai-t 
Tazhndu panindu pugazhndida varir. 

Kambattin kizh nitral kanir — engum 
kanarum virar peruntiru-k kuttam 
Mambar kuriyar avvTrar — tanga| 

nalluyir indum kodiyinai-k kappar 


(Tayin) 


4 

(Tayin) 



3. THE PRECIOUS FLAG OF MOTHER INDIA 


Behold the precious flag of Mother India ! 
Bow to it ! Pay homage ! Praise it ! 

Under the post are rallied 
Countless men of rare mettle; 

Trusty stalwarts are they 

Ready to lay down their very lives 

in detence of the National Flag. 


4 



^d6(®6abr Lojusurrasyr (3a=(r53r ^snr 

gisggflifea Gl,3i syii tBia[i; — ^ , 

Giysuiq-dsCSa usirofl Qa^tu^^tb ^(^suff ; ■ , ^ 

(^TuSlsnlr) 

asorsorLT ^tL^-UjCo/r/r® — '(2Li!rrf)slj'‘* '* '"i • 

dE/reuguii Lc/r/rL!,Lirr f' 'S'J r:-.‘;Sj.''!o :• 

Qu(rsor6iiraBf;a (S;S^T.<55OT ®LJLI _ jS/bl^ih , , , ( < 

, Quit ff)Us®L_ujT(f jirstsu/f '. ’• 

"'■ ! ! ''' 1 1 
! 'll, ’/ 

■ / >' '• 

I ' 1 *. ' • 

Sentamizh Tiattu-p porunar — kodum 
tTkican itiarayargal serantan virar 

Sindai tunin^a telungar — tayin 


sev^ikke pani ^seyididum tuluvar 

, /f • ' 

Kannadar ottiy^rpdu — poril 

kalanuifi’anja-k kalakku marattar 

Ponnagar-rt . tev'afg^l oppa — nirkum 
porpiidaiyai- ipdustanattu mallar 


6 

(Tayin) 


7 

(Tayin) 



17 


The plucky gallants of Tamilnad; 

The valorous warriors of Kerala; 

The resolute fighters of Andhra; 

The Tulus, patriotic to the core; 6 

The Kannadigas and the Oriyas; 

The Marathas who defy death in battle; 

The Mallas of North India, 

As gracious as the gods of the golden city; 7 



18 

y,^soii (yD/D^tS^ii susaiju^ii — 

Guirf siS/Dsu ujTSijii lipuqpii svifiojjiqii 
tOT^fraslr a^qsirsirr sustnjqii — uirfflsb 

L06a)fl}sii(i^Lb QcSirsfr jggq^/j' siJy/f g 

(firuSloir) 

i3fl}jiG^(rf, — (tpsSr&aru 
uTii^jiiSsr Qp^eb usu/f suiijp/B^ jssir(^LLL.Tf, 
^(Q3tib Qu/raf^g)j(i ^(ruSIsar — U;S;£ 

Q^(rsm(^ jSl8s!irjbiS(^Lb 6)Jiijds^j£lG(^(i^ii> 9 >, 

(;STli51(»OT) 


Bhudalam mutridum varaiyum ara-p 

porviral yavum marappurum varaiyum 
Madargaj karpuUa varaiyum — paril 

maraivarum kirttikol rajaputra virar 8 

(Tayin) 

Panja nadattu-p pirandor munnai-p 

parttan mudarpalar vazhnda nannattar 
Tunjum pozhudinum tayin — pada-t 

tondu ninaindidum vangattinorum 9 

(Tayin) 



19 


The Rajputs whose glory won’t fade 
As long as the world lasts. 

Feminine virtue is aglow. 

Righteous valour is valued; 8 

The people of the Land of the Five Rivers 
Where arose Arjun and other heroes numerous; 

The Bengalis, who cannot forget 

Service to Motherland even in sleep; 9 




20 


«TLJU^ <sTSSsfir! — c-sjsuir 
i^ljSsro^uSIsar siJjih suir^<sj 

Q^fjbjssuf (cu/r/Dpii urr ^ — jSso 
(S^siSl ^su^Lo <fiiDULfp suirjpcs ! 

o 


) 

10 

(fiiruSlsir) 


Serndadai-k kappadu kanir ! — avar 
sindaiyin viram nirandaram vazhga I 
Terndavar potrum Bharata — aila 
devi duvajam sirappura vazhga ! 


O 


10 

(Tayin) 



21 


All these have come together 
To guard the National Flag. 

May their stput-willed heroism live for ever ! 

May the glory of the flag they revere endure 

for ever ! 10 

(From Dr. S. Ramakrishnan’s translation, m his Bharati : Poet 
Patriot Prophet, New Century Book House, Madras, 1982) 



22 


4. ufTir^ 


unrf^ Q^d-QLDSsrg)] Sluiuir Qff/r 6 bg 2 joU(rfr-i£)iij.u 
uujrij Gl<sfi sb^suirir ^lu^u ussiOi Qsusbgysvjirf. 

Qeiisfrsrflu usafi Lc&cuiiljor L^^sosif(SsuiTih~^iq- 
Qui&c<i <51— sb < 5 uusb s)S>(^(Ssuinii ; 

ushstfljS ^«OLo&3r^^ii (fl'<5friiS6b Q<yaj0CSsu(rii ; sriiissk 
UTjfi (Sfio^GlLosar^ (S^ifst 0i5Til(5)Cs«Jiriri. 1 

(uirjfb) 


4. BHARATA DESAM 


Bharata desam enru peyar solluvar — midi 
Bhayam kolluvar, tuyar-p pagai velluvar. 

Velli-p pani malaiyin midulavuvom -adi 

melai-k kadal muzhudum kappal viduvom; 

Palli-t talamanaittum koyil aeyiguvom — enga] 

Bharata desam enru tol kottuvom. - 

1 

(Bharata) 



'23 


4. BHARAT DESH 


With the name of Bharat Desh on our Ifps, 
let us shake off our fears and poverty, 
and overcome our sorrows and enemies. 

We shall stroll on the snow clad silvery heights 

of the Himalayas. 

Our ships shall sail across the high seas. 

We shall set up schools— all sacred temples for us, 
and proudly thump our shoulders and utter 
the name of this land of ours, Bharat. 

With the name of Bharat Desh on our lips 
let us shake off our fears and poverty. 




24 


sflfBjasir^S urrsutb c^fSODLcuGuini 

Ga^gisrosu (Slo(5I3)j^^ <jsini£)u(oUfrLb 
e^jfBJdb^s^oO |pir}.su0ii jgfflsor uSstodBiUfTsb 

sromuj^gj jBfr(5l®srfls^ uuSl/f Q(yiij(0(5sxjini . 2 

(UTJ^) 

jB^SuSIsSr tiJsroa- jfieusjSlOTflSsv) 

J t/J-6TrLC 0LI53lJrdS(®[5L.(56!jr 

aijs/in Qfi^rii-£lsafl^ u(rLlti).sinff^^^ 

(o^TSTOfldssfr gjLliq, siSl&trujTiq. su^GsutiA . 5 

[unj^) 


Singala-t tivinukkor palam amaippom 
setuvai medurutti vidi samaippom 
Vangattil odi varum nirin migaiyal 

maiyattu nadugalil payir seyiguvom. 2 

(Bharata) 

Sindu nadiyinmisai nilavinile 

sera nannattilam pengaludane 
Sundara -t telunginil pattisaittu 
tonigal 5tti vijaiyadi varuvom. 


I 


5 

(Bharata) 



25 


We shall span the sea to reach Sri Lanka, 

and raise the level of the ‘Sethu’ and pave a road on it. 

We shall water Central India 

with the bounteous rivers of Bengal. 

With the name of Bharat Desh on our lips 

let us shake off our fears and poverty. 2 

We shall go out rowing on the moonlit Sindhu, 
beautiful damsels of Kerala will keep us company, 
singing songs in Telugu, a language so sweet! 

With the name of Bharat Desh on our lips 

let us shake off our fears and poverty. 5 



26 

•SnUStDiSS JB^ULjJ^^ (S<STg]S!DLDll) ustmi—ii 

«T 6 iSl(fl QsujD/fil&Uds® U3(rp QairsfrcsTjGsuTii 
iflfiia ii)jirLl(i).ujir^Lb <xa9s 3)^ QarsobrO 

fifi^rijdisir uiflffSTfluGu/rii 5 

(uirjT;®) 

<IT(#1 JB®(fULJS061l/r GudFili £_S35(r^(rffl3r 

«T(g#lu51sb GdBtlu^/DCedBT/f «0S)51 QiTlu(SsUTU3 
j/rffLj^i^airsar^gj e^j/r ;ELD<i 0 

;56usi8ujsu •xsirgari—jS^ ^ ^s/EidBii ,3js»fluCeuirii 7 

(uir^/S) 


6 

(Bharata) 


7 

(Bharata) 


Gangai nadi-p purattu godumai-p pandam 
kaviri vetrilaikku maru kolluvom 
Singa marattiyartam kavitai kondu 
serattu dantangal parisajippdm 

Kasi nagar-p pulavar pesum uraidan 

Kanchiyil ketpadarkor karuyi seyivom 
Rasaputtanattu vTrar tamakku 

nalliyal Kannadaitu -t tangam ajippdm 



27 


We shall swap the wheat of the Gangetlc plains 
for the tender betel leaves of the Kaveri basin. 

We shall honour the poets of the valiant Marathas 
with gifts of ivory from Kerala, 

With the name of Bharat Desh on our lips 

let us shake off our fears and poverty. 6 

We shall have such devices 

that sitting at Kanchi we will listen to 

the discourses of scholars in Varanasi. 

We shall honour the heroes of Rajasthan 
with gifts of refined gold from Karnataka. 

With the name of Bharat Desh on our lips 

let us shake off our fears and poverty. 7 



28 


fflffiuCpSUTib ; 66 ti 60 ds/rdS^ii O^iudsuTii 
,:^&UiS5rj srosuuCoUTiii aebsiSl 3=irSkvssir s»SiJuC2uTib 
QdFiuCoUJini ;S&u ffiriL/^sb Q^iijGujirLb 
8i_s!ror6a)U]dB6fr GlffrrsuCeoXJTii usu sijsubrstDirdBsfr 

Q^ujQsvTtjb. 9 
(uirir^) 

iXflCSurtlf s^SSisT^ <3s/d(oUTti, 

sujS^ ^STTuGu/rii, dBi_6b lESsar ^srruCouiriLb, 
3^^0j wssfsri—sc^^ ^ujsb a563?n® G^STflGsu/rii ; 

Q^0Qu0A(g|ii a^.T^^jTLb dB/DCoUTii. H 

(UlTiT^B) 


Ayudam seyivom nalla kagidam seyivom 
alaigal vaippom kalvi salaigal vaippom 
Oyudal seyiyom talai sayudal seyiyom 

unmaigaKsolvom pala vanmaigaj seyivom 9 

(Bharata^ 

Mantiram karpom vinai-t tantiram karpom 
vanai alappom kadal minai alapp5m 
Chandira mandalattiyal kandu telivom 

sandi teru perukkum sattiram karpom 1 1 

(Bharata) 



29 


We shall make tools and weapons. 

We shall produce paper. 

We shall open factories and schools. 

We shall never be Ia2y or weary. 

We shall be ever generous. 

We shall always speak the truth. 

With the name of Bharat Desh on our lips 

let us shake off our fears and poverty. 9 

Both scriptures and sciences we shall learn, 
the heavens and oceans we will explore; 
the mysteries of moon we shall unravel, 
the art of street-sweeping, too, we shall learn. 

With the name of Bharat Desh on our lips 

let us shake off our fears and poverty. 1 1 



30 


•3^11^ ^^remQi—u^uj <SsLi/&sb&V)’ ^sirQfi} 

fiiBjfi Loasfr QaT« 06 iSuj Qa'Tsb CTsaiCSiJiru); 

;8^ QjbjffuSliSsflsar^ LSl/Dfri^^si/ii 

(o^rf'SBDLciUjt Qinsosuif ; <Sy)euf m;DCoQT}(r. 13 

(uTir^b) 


O 


‘Sadi irandozhiya verillai’ enre 

Tamizh magal solliya sol amizhdam enbom; 

Niti neriyininru pirarkkudavum 

nermaiyar mclavar, kizhavar matror. 13 

(Bharata) 


o 





Avvai’s \indying message 
We will live 'up to for ever. 

Only two castes there are, said she : 
those helpful .to others are the high born, 
the upright men of virtue. 

All the rest are low born. 

With the name of Bharat Desh on our lips 
let us shake off our fears and poverty. 




32 


5. (SuiT^5crn) uiTir^(y)ii) 


svsQsiaLDUjfDp G^rst?l(^iu 

Guir 

Gut 

Gut 

LDiririSIGsv 

Gut 

Gut 

Gut 

QuTsdsiSlsotr iy:i<X! 3 >^(QjiLi 

Gut 

Gut 

Gut 

s)Sl^u9(^iu 

Gut 

Gut 

Gut 

gtsBuSlyififi ^jsScs^uj 

Gut 

Gut 

Gut 

^sifluSj^jE^ GuisafI njfTUJ 

Gut 

Gut 

Gut 

,£ls6 (olj3(Qfl(^lLJ 

Gut 

Gut 

Gut 

dSjpfiwuj Qiasir^ii) GsvsmQsujiu 

Gut 

Gut 

Gut 


1 


5. POGINRA BHARATAMUM 
VARUGINRA BHARATAMUM 


Valimaiyatra tolinai 
Marbile odunginai 
Polivila mugatinai 

pori izhanda vizhiyinai 
Oliyizhanda kuralinai 
oliyizhanda meniyai 
Kill piditta nenjinai 

kizhmai enrum venduvai 


p6 

po 

po 

PO 

po 

po 

PO 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 

po 


I 



5. OUT, OUT, OLD INDIA ! AND 
WELCOME ! NEW INDIA ! 


You with weak shoulders — 

go, go, go away. 

You with a sunken chest — 

go, go, go away. 

You without a brilliant face — 

go, go, go away. 

You without sparkling eyes — 

go. go, go away. 

You with a feeble voice — 

go, go, go away. 

You without a shining body — 

go, go, go away. 

You with a mind full of fears — 

go, go, go away. 

You who always wallow in meanness — 

go, go, go away. 



34 

L/Srol d5633r6!J!jfi(OT)lU 

G135/T5337U 0^C^i#l(g)lij 

dssrfl usa)i~^^ QLD(rj^u5)(so)tu 

<5B(5lS!nLD QdBfi scran— G^irstfl(^iu 
Q^srflsi/ QujbiD lo^u3I(6^iu 

eflffjiSDLD assabrO Ouirm/Qsufnu 
STSlflsOJLD ffi6a37-(5l ^JT^fiJ^SUirUJ 

Guirsb ;56cni_u5)(g)tij 

o 


BUT 

suer 

611 O' 

61 ; rr 

6u;r 

siirr 

SUT 

BUT 

6ur 

61 / ;r 

BUn 

SUIT 

6ii/r 

511 ir 

SUIT 

oil nr 

BUT 

SUIT 

SUIT 

Bijir 

sun 

511 «■ 

syjir 

Bunr 


5 


Oli padaitta kanninai 

va 

va 

va 

urudi konda nenjinai 

va 

va 

va 

Kali padaitta mozhiyinai 

va 

va 

va 

kadumai konda tSlinai 

va 

va 

va 

TeUvu petra madiyinai 

va 

va 

va 

sirumai kandu ponguvai 

va 

va 

va 

Elimai kandu iranguvai 

va 

va 

va 

erupdl nadaiyinai 

va 

va 

va 


5 


O 



35 


Welcome 

— you with brilliant eyes! 

Welcome 

— you with a strong heart! 

Welcome 

— you with enchanting words! 

Welcome 

— you with sturdy shoulders! 

Welcome 

— you with clarity of mind! 

Welcome 

— you who rage against meanness! 

Welcome 

— you who weep for the poor! 

Welcome 

— you who walk with the majesty of a bull! 5 




36 

6. oS](p^2so 

6iS(5I;6&u ! «iS10^&u 1 6:Sl(^fi&o ! 

U6»/DUJ(V5<i(gLD ^lui 

q&uuj0<35@iii si51(5l^S&u ; 
uirsuQiriri^ 0;o5U0<i@ifl 

Lo;DSU0ti@ii) 6i5)(31/sau ; 

<£I;d6!»u] QdBTsaari— ^stouiuj/d/d 

Q^air^sb qifljB^ uj/isii0U) 

<X5bs)SI (QTsariis eriu^ 

6VJ/r^suii JBTll.lq.Gso> 

6. VipUDALAI 

Vidudalai ! Vidudalai ! Vidudalai ! 

Paraiyarukkum ingu tiyar 

pulaiyarukkum Vidudajai; 

Paravarodu kufavarukkum 
maravarukkum Vidudalai,' 

Tiramai ko ida timaiyatra 
tozhil purindu yavarutn 
Ternda kalvi jnanam eydi 
vazhvam inda nattile. 


1 


1 

(Vidudalai) 



37 


6. LIBERATION 

Liberation! Liberation! Liberation! 

Liberation for the Pariahs, the Tiyas and the Pulaiyas, 
Liberation for the Paravas, the Kuravas and the 

Maravas. 

Let us take up skilful labour 
that causes no harm. 

Let us educate ourselves thoroughly, 
become wise and live in this land. 

Liberation! Liberation! Liberation! 1 


v 




38 

.^14.6®LD Glujsor^ti 
CT6ii 0i Lji ^so&u s^ir ^uSIsb ; 

^^5i| QiSirsaoTi— wsaP^Q ^eiru^ 
^fi0iutiS)SlA> ^sti&oGiu ; 

sutr^ dBsuoiSl Qffsbsi/ti siiLi0 
LDSar LLcS^JB^ 3^n.L^GlU, 

tnsafljtf iu/r0U) ^0 jSl<3iir 

ffLCTSBT LOT® (WTJp6VJ<2u3. 


Ezhai enrum adimai enrum ^ 
evanum illai jatiyil ; 

Izhivukonda manidarenbadu 
indiyavil illaiye ; 

Vazhi kalvi selvam eydi ' 
manamagazhindu kudiye. 

Manidar yarum orunigar 
samanamaga vazhvame. 


2 


2 

(Vidudalai) 



39 


No one shall be poor, no one shall be slave. 

In India there is no one who is low born. 

Everybody will attain learning and wealth. 

Happily shall we get together 
and live as equals. 

Liberation! Liberation! Liberation! 2 



40 


LDTfiir jSlieiDUl Q<7IUIL{lj] 

uii-SiDUisisiij Q(5s/r(^;i^Gsuinxi j 
etDSUUJ 6Uiry}ei| ^sarsaflsb er^jS 
suscojEuSIg^jib fiiodi^Qstr 
fiT^if ST^p jglS^sajm ILT0I 
c^s!^«(oflnr(3i Qu«z^<s(01£i 
$ ruifl;@(55T <7uirr<oru)T<95 

surri^suLb fiirC.iq.(Ssc 


o 


Madar tammai izhivu seyium 
madamaiyai-k koluttuvom, 
Vaiya vazhvu tannil enda 
vagaiyilum namakkulle 
Tadar enra nilaimai mari 
angalodu pengalum 
Saririigar sam5n,amaga 
vazhvam inda nattile 


3 

(siS)(5i^&o) 


3 

(Vidudalai) 


O 



41 


We shall destroy the foolish custom of 
humiliating women. 

No more shall .there be any servitude or subordination. 
Men and women will live as equals in this country. 
Liberation! Liberation! Liberation! 3 



42 

7. USTr(l0 

r^t^QsuirGui usfr^u uirQGsijjCoin 

^sarjB^ *;S/6^!ru3 k3IS!bi-js^ siSlLl(oL_irLb ffTsSrgj; 

(ci^QQsurrGLD) ' 

utrirCiutr&sr gBiLiGljsaT/D <sireo(ynl> GujSQ'f—QsushSsnCi 
ujfBjdQfiOiiu ^etajQiufOT p <a(r 60 (ipii (ouir jCSff — 

^/DU/rsDj usoofldSfiSr'^ Airec(yiii> QuT3=(S(f pilsnui 
Crtu»j(eUT0<sG«6U5b QifuiiLitb (Sireu^pii (SuitS(Sa=. 1 

(c^(5I(S6VJtGU5) 


7. sutantira-p pallu 

Aduvome pallu-p paduvome 
Ananda sutantiram adaindu vittom enru 

(Aduvome) 

Parppanai aiyar enra kalamum pochche — vellai 
Parangiyai durai enra kalamum pochche — pichchai 
Erparai-p paniginra kalamum pochche — nammai 
Eyipp5ru-k keval seyiyum kalamum pochche. 1 

(Aduvome) 



43 


7. A PALLU OF FREEDOM 

Let us dance and sing Pallu. 

Let us rejoice in the freedom we have won. 

Let us dance and sing Pallu. 

Gone are the days when Brahmins were called masters. 
Gone are the days when the white alien lorded it over us 
Gone are the days of stooping before the base 

petitioners. 

Gone are the days of our servility to swindlers. 1 

Let us dance and sing Pallu. 

Let us rejoice in the freedom we have won. 




44 


STSBluCo^ (Su&3i—ri,lTtil 

6T6b<c6Vlfr0li >yLDQLCS5TUgj ; 

<yn5j0 (SldB/rsBarCci— QeupiSl s^^GsiJTGLD—^sta^Ji 
;S7635f)(iQ(5B6b6Ufrii SpgjGsU/T^LD. 2 

s_^61jd6@ 'lQ^fr^g2j30Lfl SUfifS&OT Q(5=Uj(SsuTlil — STffS0d^6V 
a-SRir® a56ifl^^0u(ou(rfi!n(r Q^iuCcSviriii. 

6i31(pg2/i@ /g/f utriu#.#! Loiriu ifl/rilGi—irLb— Glsupii 
6i?6JRjr0a0 fi_6my3^0/U6oii) @uj LniriLGuirdb. 4 

{^($(osiiiiGld ) 


Engum sutantiram enbade pechchu— nam 
Ellorum samam enbadu urudiyachhu 

Sangu konde vetri uduvomS — idai 

Tarani-k kellam eduttu oduvome . 2 

(Aduvome) 

Uzhavukkum tozhilukkum vandanai seyivom — vinil 
Undu kalittirupporai nindanai seyivom ^ 
Vizhalukku nir paichchi mayamattom — verum 
Vmarukku lazhaittudalam oyamattom. 4 

(Aduvome) 



45 


Freedom is the talk everywhere. 

All of us are equals, \ye know it for certain. 

Let us blow the conch of victory and 

let the whole world know about it. 2 

Let us dance and sing Pallu. 

Let us rejoice in the freedom we have won. 

Let us bless the toilers in the fields and factories. 

Let us curse the wretched breed that sits and eats 

through life, doing nothing. 
No more shall we water the weeds, 
nor shall we sweat for the idle wretches. 4 

Let us dance and sing Pallu. 

Let us rejoice in the freedom we have won. 



46 


/5T0 ^BUDiSl^sSru^ 

jBiM^CSds s^iflsoiLDiumb eTSiru^j&JbCo^iriii—^jB^ 
y^ifluSlsb sTSijf<5B0ii ^safl ^Lj.6S)LD Q^iuGiuirii—uifl 
y,3'50trrOTu<*CDd5 .^jis^saiLC Qffiu^ suit^Gsutlo. 5 

(^(^(SsuuCSiD) 


o 


Nam irukkum nadu namadu enbadarindom ~ idu 
Namakke urimaiyam enbadarindom — inda 
Bhumiyil evarkkum ini adimai seyiyom — pari 
purananukke adimai seyidu vazhvom. 5 

(Aduvome) 


O 



47 


We have realised that this land is ours, and 
that we alone have full right over it. 

We shall never be slave of anyone on this earth. 

We will only serve the Almighty. 5 

Let us dance and sing Pallu. 

Let us rejoice in the freedom we have won. 



8 . 

J-<rL£)6b&o 

,:^<y<5=QLD6SrLJ^«b&oC2uj . 
as_CSfiTr»r Qjr soirti 

ST^lf^^ jgl^ JD (S LI IT 

a" <9= Q LO SOT LI ^ st Sfeo Cd UJ . 

^/<3= <ytD/r<3B CTSDOTSCRyf) jBixi6a>Ln 
iS)a=tLj;S Cgufr c^smiLO. 
c3l#<9=u96b2bv3 ,;3j(#a=LS6b2feo 

<=5/#(9=Qu}«5TLI^5b&t>CDUJ - 

8. ACHCHAMILLAI 

Aclichainillai achehamillai 
achchamenbadillaiye . 
Ichchagattulorel am 

edirttu ninra podinxim, 
Achehamillai achehamillai 
achchamenbadillaiye. 
Tuchchamaga enni nammai 
turu seyida podinum, 
Achehamillai achehamillai 
achchamenbadillaiye. 



49 


8. NO FEARS 

No fears, no fears, no fears ! 

Even if the whole world stands against us. 

No fears, no fears, no fears ! 

Even if we are scorned and reviled. 

No fears, no fears, no fears ! 



^#sin<j= 0«ifstrori_ ®UT( 5 ® 6 rrso/rLh 
6 ^l1l_ (guTi^syiij 
c5J<j<yLfl6tl&0 ,:S|<j<3=Li9«t&t) 

^ j (5F ® LD sir u ^ 6b &u G aj 

6Ufru5IG5u ®«fr63aT(r;6Sl 
;Bstferu0LL(5l 

cS/tfffLfleb&u t5»j!9=<JLfil6b&u 
^ ^ ® LCdir u^eb&oGuj 
a_j^ sijfrstif}Lq.jB^ 

6iJ(^tfisor/D Gu/r^gj/tb, 
j<5=Lfl5b?kO c9|<X<3=Lfl6b&JJ 
^ # <y ® us SOT u ^ 6b &V) G ttJ . 

o 

Ichchaikonda porulelam 
izhandu vitta podinum, 
Achchamillai achchamillai 
achchamenba d i 1 laiye. 
Nachchai vayile konarndu 
nanbar uttu podinum, 
Achchamillai achchamillai 
achchamenbadillaiye. 
Uchimidu vanidindu 

vTzhuginra podinum, 
Achchamillai achchamillai 
achchamenbadillaiye. 



51 


Even if we have lost all the good things in life, 1 

No fears, no fears, no fears ' 

Even if our own friends poison us^ 

No fears, no fears, no fears ! 

Even if the sky crashes down over our headS; 

No fears, no fears, no fears ! 




52 


9 . 


UDTafrsjfl jsril. - 

ir}_6afl5b asss5L_<sdB63ar 6®sw^^xrfr, 
f^arrQsiJSSr^ st(i^jB/SSJ uirf iLjau Lj/rilc#) ; 

QdsrQrni<xrrsci6ar ^svj& siSjfi^^iTsiT ; 

6UTa/r6tfr (S^axsfr qsroL^^irir suirssruijf ; 

GuujaQsrrsl soTii ffu0;5^® asssrsurff 

GuTt3Biri£6U (356OTr LfSa^^^ LOtq.J5^6STSUinil ; 

63)suuj<s^^(f, qgjfitDu: isreaafif I 1 


9. PUDIYA RUSHIYA 


MakaU Parasakti Rushiya nattinil 
kadaikkan vaittal.ange 
Agavenru ezhundadu par yugappuratchi ; 

kodunkalan alari vizhndan ; 

Vagana tolpudaittar vanamarar ; 

peyigalellam varundi-k kannir 
Pogamal kanpugaindu madindanavam 

vaiyagattir, pudumai lanir ! 1 



9. NEW RUSSIA 


Mighty goddess Parasakti, 
she turned her benign glance 
towards Russia, 
and behold, there is a revolution 
bringing in a new era ! 

The tyrant screamed as he fell. 
The shining shoulders of the gods 
swelled with joy and pride, 
while the devils, shedding tears, 

■ went blind and perished. 

0 people of the world, 
behold this new wonder ! 



/ 


54 


^UDUJLoSsu 5i?Lp/B^^ (suirsb s»?ip;5Sf 
^rif zsi![drssr ; ^su&arcj 
<TijDuj(y:4rr uiq-AQd&sljsDfrti Quiriu c3h_^ 

^jDiii QdG/r53T£u <3=^d5sfr 
<3iU)L_fr <yL_Q5usSrp <y/f);5^Lli_Tfr. 

Ljiusu aT/Dp (a)6®;D ^6Sr«jflsl) 

^(y)^Lb sTSjr ld/j-lo s)SI(i^jb^ afiQusbstmi 

siSl^airsar Qaiu^GuirGst). 5 


Imayamalai vizhndadu p6l vizhnduvittan 
jararasan-.ivani-ch chuzhndu 
Samayamula padikkellam poikuri 
aramkonru sadigal seyida 
Sumadar sadasadevenru sarindittar, 
puyalkatru-ch churai tannil 
Timutimena maram vizhundu kadellam 
viragana seyidi p5le. 


5 



As if the Himalayas crashed down. 
Czar, the ruler, fell. 

And the wretches around him 
who lied to suit his whims 
and outraged Virtue, all, all of them 
went down. 

It was like a forest 

reduced to firewood by a whirlwind, 

uprooting all its mighty trees. 




56 


LOdBtSsfr ©ffTsfirsurutij. svjirjpsi^ 

(SinsarsmuiiLfiDA 

ai^Quj/rsjr^sb uirir; 

a_6uan5luj <3h.;!51siS)ilL./r(f ; 

^iq.saiLCia<^ ^&fru5lsu&u iuir0Lfiu(SuT^ 
^IX).633LOU5l6b&V: ^l/SiSB ffTOTT^/r ; 

Squill- Jrsuf 6u/r(o6U dBStS) 

dS0^i4<5BLb CT(^d5 inirG^ir! 5 

O 


Kudimakkal sonnapadi kudivazhvu 
menmaiyura-k kudimai niti 
Kadi onril ezhundadu par ; kudiarasenru 
ulagariya-k kurivittar ; 

Adimaikku-t talaiyillai yarumippodu 
adimaiyillai ariga enrar : 

Idi^jatta suvarpole kali vizhundan 

kirudayugam ezhugamadd ! 6 


O 



57 


Everything changed suddenly. 

Now laws are made for the people’s advancement, 
according to the people’s desire. 

They have proclaimed for the whole world 
to know that theirs is the people’s state. 

There are no shackles of slavery, 
nor any slaves. 

Like a wall knocked down. 

Kali Yuga collapsed, 

And the Golden Age has dawmed. 6 



58 


10. iDsrr^Lcrr 


ffunr^a jS! sjiiiLCirsSr, ^15^ 

snsijuj^a^ j5(iLlt4.Q5V)6\:ffO(Tiij 
6iJ2j]6tnLD 

6iSI(5l^Ebo ^sn/SlA Q<3BLL(5ij 

utj^ulL® ^soT/D^irih jp/r 
uirg-^ (S^s^LD ^sarSsar 
6VJT4pSl5)<5<35 SiJJEjS 

Loas/r^LDH I jS ffu/r^dsf suit^a! 

o 

10. mahatma GANDHI 

«• 


Vazhgani ! emman, inda 
vaiyattu natUl ellam 
Tazhvutru varumai minji 
vidudalai tavarik-kettu 
Pazhpattu ninratam or 
Bharata desam tannai 
Vazhvikka vanda Gandhi 

Mahatma ! ni vazhga ! vazhga ! 1 


O 



59 


10. MAHATMA GANDHI 

May you live long, my lord ! 

You have come to redeem and revive 
the land of Bharat, 

the land that has been made desolate and degenerate, 
condemned to poverty and slavery 
worse than any other nation in the world. 

Mahatma! Redeemer! 

May you live for ever! 1 




11, (o^oSluSlsk 


LO&sruSIsir jSrijdS 
^L_if ij 5I@ <#l6tn;DUuilL_(rg2jLb, 

,®!rfi03r(3)ui ldt/Su 

Coafii^- ^soTsarsb 
ffiSI&TTjBQ^SJor 

<2^6)51/ jS'ism&tn^ 

Q^T(i^^u.6b Lopi^GsoQm. 

O 

11. SUTANTIRA DEVIYIN TUTI 


Itantaru manaiyin ningi 

i darmigu siraippattalum , 
Patantaru irandum mari-p 

pazhimiguttu izhivutrMum, 
Vitantaru k5di innal 

vilaindenai azhitp'ttalum , 
Sutantira devi ! ninnai-t 
tozhudidal marakkilene. 



61 


11. A PRAYER TO THE GODDESS OF FREEDOM 

Even if I am to leave 

the comforts of my home, 

and live behind the bars and tortured, 

even if I have to give up all pleasures and joys, 

and am scorned and reviled, 

even if I am totally ruined by a thousand calamities, 

0 Goddess of Freedom! 

1 shall never forget to offer my prayers to you ! 1 



'62 


12 a=Cr6T061I^ (d^aS)uS) 6OT L|«Lp 


QsushS^jS <sirLC(XD/f y,siSlsl; ^0uu/rsfr, 

6)3&m Gljiuu^ii jjs^IttSlsu ^0uu/rsfr; 

Qairsfr^ ^iSruii @506^ <SiiS)6in;S 

UTivsvf ai_5hfflir^^0uuT6fr; 

B-strsrr^Tih Slu/i0sfr si^stssrifj5(S^ 

Gsu^/S^sir iL.sir jSlsSTQ(ir^siflfsiiirsfr ; 

ashstrwjbp (yisufl surra sir ah-gyii 

a 08 jattr suTaa^igl sB_ilQuT06fr ^suirsfr. 1 

(QsusTJ^iS) 

12. SARASWATI DEVIYIN PUGAZH 

Vellai-t tamrai-p puvil iruppal , 
vinai seyiyum oliyil iruppal 

Kollai inbam kulavu kavitai 
kuru pavalar ulla-t tiruppal ; 

Ulladam porul tedi unarnde. 
odum vedattin ul ninrolirvali 

Kalla matra munivargal kurum 
karunai vasagatu ut porul aval. 


1 

(Vellai) 



63 


12. IN PRAISE OF THE GODDESS OF LEARNING 

There she is on the lotus of immaculate white. 

She is present in every note of the Veena. 

She dwells in the hearts of the poets 
who compose poems in ecstasy. 

She is in the chantings of the Vedas 
that illumine the Truth. 

She is in the compassionate words of the virtuous 

sages. 1 

There she is.... 




64 


6^(5 (o^frgiiiL <5B&ouSlffiiT siIsTTiiaiLr, 

S)3^ CS^T^ii ^flrs^Qt— (i ((5 usfrffrfl, 

; bt (5 S-strsnssT smit^sir 

fi<su'fiJ<3‘S'srrrii(^m usv uso usrrsifl ; 

^fiO dSSbnSluSIsOTjS ipt OSlS3)jf 
_<j?u3l 0i A0 ^ss)fl)ujj3i 
Ga® ^ffa(g|ro srsir ^ssrBssr 

GasQOTfiiDm QaT5n'6Tr 6vj|^ ^wnsu aBsoinie-f 6 

(Qsxjffff &TT^) 


Vidutorum kalaiyin vilakkatn 
viditorum irandoru palli 
Nadu mutrilum ullana urgal 

nagargal engum palapala palli 
.Tedu kalviyilada or urai-t 

tiyinukku iraiyaga maduttal 
Kedu tirkkum amudamen annai 

kenmai kolla vazhiyivai kandir. 6 

(Vellai) 



65 ~ 


Every home should glow with culture. 

On every street, one or two schools should be set up. 

There are very many towns and villages in our 

country. 

Very many schools should be set up in all of them. 
Search for any village without a school, and 
set it ablaze, if you find one. 

These are the ways to win the affection of the 

Goddess of Learning 

whose nectar destroys evil. 6 

There she is.... 


I 

I 


I 




66 


«5afl (off fr&t)a55fr Q^ili^su 
^sofliu jSii^^im (sSsaorasfr ^uj;D 33SU ; 
c5/55r5trr czf^uSIjrLb fflcsu^^Sob 

c^suujLb Lj^(OT)nSl(rLb jBiTiiueb ; 
iSlsSrsarif e_ sfrsrr ^(j^Lorbissir luaeqLb 
Quiuir siJsrrfSjdS gjeYRjr jSl^^^sb 
^esrsjT ujT6iS)g)/ii LjsoirOTiiflajii GtSTiq. 

c^f^Ga/r/r g'5m{p<i0 9 

i ■ (Qsusit Ssn 


Innarum kani-ch cholaigal seyidal 
iniya nirttan sunaigal iyatralj 
Anna sattiram ayiram vaittal 
alayam padinayiram nattal, 

Pinnar ulla darumangal yavum } 
peyar vilangi olira niruttal 
Anna yavinum punniyam k5di 

angor ezhaikku ezhuttarivittal. 9 

(Veljai) 



67 


Planting orchards bearing sweet fruits, 
digging wells and lakes of sweet cool water, 
setting up thousands of rest houses that serve 

food to the needy, 

building temples innumerable, 

establishing other charities thaf make the donor’s 

name shine through time- 

all these are deeds of virtue, 

but immensely superior to them all 

is the deed of educating a poor man. 9 

There she is.... 




68 


^0 i£l^^^su& Qu(r;£);0«®su ! 

00 06i»^/6^iuir <5T3Vi5sfr ^irifir I 

s3j§i6vjii t^ii)p<JU(r fiiJTiijj Qiyirsu ! 

t:^«Kjr60)iniUfrtfir/r aj_«nyjui51&fr I 

icgijr^a G^GlLTiir^ ir/r^ffaQsrrsbsuTLb 
6UT6crof) y,«D<:;»dB ^fflujsarGu^ff I 
CTgjsijLb ;b«Ii<£Iu 3(^0 srsijsusa^ jbuj it OT) i Lj 

(Slu(75ii) Q^irt^sb ^ril^aiLb svirff I 10 

(Qsusfr&rr^) 

O 


Nidi migundavar porkuvai tarir ! 
nidi kuraindavar kasugal tarir ! 

Aduvum atravar vayi-ch chol arulir ! 
anmaiyalar uzhaippinai nalgir ! 

Madura-t temozhi madargal ellam 
vani pusai-k kuriyana peslr ! 

Eduvum nalgi ingu evvagai yanum 

ipperum tozhil nattuvam varir ! 10 

(Veljai) 


O 



Let the wealthy donate heaps of gold, 

let the less rich offer small coins, 

let the poor give vocal support, 

let the able-bodied donate their labour, 

let the women of sweet words speak in favour 

of this worship of the Goddess of Learning. 

By giving whatever we can 

by adopting any and every means, 

let us achieve this deed of great merit. 


There she is.... 



70 


13> [^fB^fiOiTfiOfr 

sirdeuis (^l/DdSsofKoSU fijb^Sbscireoirl — jSisirjDsSr 
<xfuj jSI/ij'Lb G^fTffliT-psoj^G u, JB/BjSsotsvit I . 1 

LfT/fei@ii LojfEjaQOTstsuTii jBjB^scTSCii — jSlssTpsir 
UffdSDiy jillDlil (S^TSBT^JjSOJ^CeUJ, fifi^SOTSOT ! 2 

(D*Ll0Li sp56lu3Qso5i)5UTii j5jEfi6VTSvjI — jSisirjDsir 
dS^ti ^SD&dt^jSL-ir, jEfif£60irsvT I 3 

^i^STT fiiSl^Su 6Ksu^^ir6b jbjE/Secirsvj t — jBlsSrS^ 

^(SOT®Lh ^snruib G^irsarp^SLT jb^iiscjsoiT I 4 

O 

13. NANDALALA 

Kalckai-ch chiraginile Nandalala ! — ninran 
Kariya miram tonrudaiye, Nandalala ! 1 

Parkkum marangal ellam Nandalala ! — ninran 
Pachchai niram tonrudaiye , Nandalala ! 2 

Ketkum oliyil ellam Nandalala ! — ninran 

Gltam isaikkuda^ • Nandalala ! 3 

Tikkul viralai vaittal Nandalala ! — ninnai-t 
lindum inbam tonru(bda Nandalala ! 4 


O 



71 


13. NANDALALA 


In the dark wings of the raven 

appears the dark shade of your body, Nandalala !. I 
In every verdant tree' 

appears the green of your body, Nandalala ! 2 

Every sound I hear, Nandalala, 

is resonant of your music, Nandalala ! 3 

Even if 1 put my finger 

in the burning fire, Nandalala ! 

I feel the ecstasy of touching you, Nandalala ! 4 




72 

14. (oSlilUTBJ^ipfib 

87;fijd00;6gj su006iiC;air? — ^s6 

lUTS^it Qfftui^suGfiir? — ^lij. G^tr^l 

^sdr^OTfl^piii suQ^^suGfitr ? — inifi 

Q> 35 (rii!LSls^ 6 dr^ih fiu^^suCS^ir ? — Qsusifl 

U35iir/i5l«of<3rpii 6 U 00 «ijG^(r ? — ^sSrjDsSr 

iD^ U30sa!nii)-L. I — 1 

(5rf&d00;B^) 

14. VEYINKUZHAL 

1 

;Engirundu varuguvado— oli 

yavar seyiguvado — adi tozhi ! 

(Engirundu) 

Kunrininrum varuguvado ? — mar^-k 
Kombininrum varuguvadd 7 — veli 

Manrininrum varuguvado ? — enran 

Madi marundi^ seyigudadi ! ihdu 1 

(Engirundu) 



14. THE FLUTE OF KRISHNA 


Wherefrom does this sweet note come ? 
Who plays it, dear friend ? 

Is it from the hills far away ? 

Is it from the branches of the trees ? 

Is it from open fields ? 

Oh, it makes me mad with joy, this sweet note ! 

Wherefrom does this sweet note come ? 
Who plays it, dear friend ? 



74 

(SirLLuj-SijflrfrpLb su^^suCo^fr ? — 

dBir/Dffln/D Q^frsm(^ ^(^(^suQ^it? — QsvsrFl 
fifiLLiq-saflm^Lb ^^Q^sirpA) GldEnrsaartsuG^ir ? 

jEir^ib ©_u5!o!n/r a_0dB0Co^ ! 3 

(sTi^S(!5^^) 

dBsabrswirsar e«!r^(5iLh Gsuium^jpsb^irsona. 

(36frc£lCeSu a_5fr6w^^sb ;b(S*» 

us3&r r 3 isir(yLDtq. uiretDeuiuir su/ii_u 

uiri^. snu4>(5lii ! 5 

(srf6JdB0iB^) 

O 

Kattininrum varuguvadS ? — nila-k 
Katrai-k kondu taruguvado ? — 

Nattininrum ittenral konarvado? 

Nadam Ihden uyirai urukkude ! 

Kannan udidum veyinkuzhal tanadi 
Kadile amudu ullattil nanju, 

Pannanram adi pavaiyar vada-p 

Padi eyididum ambadi tozhi ! 5 

( Engirundu ) 

O 




75 


Does it come from the deep woods ? 

Do the moonbeams bring it along ? 

Does the breeze bring it from some distant country ? 
Oh, this music melts my life away ! 3 

Wherefrom does this sweet note come ? 

Who plays it, dear friend ? 

Now I know, it is the flute of Krishna ! 

Though i. veet to my ears, 
it is a poison in my mind. 

It is no music, it is an arrow 

shot with music to smite beautiful women. 5 

Wherefrom does this sweet note come ? 

Who plays it, dear friend ? 



15. awOTtfOOTihiDfr - ctsot - 1 


6i51j^(j *i_/fjS(r63r — dssDtjTSOBriiujfr 
(^fluj a^je^/rCojnr ? 

«ul1l_A sffluj — dBfiwsjonfiLo/r 
SUTSStA <36(550510 (Sl<36fr6b(c50'T ? 
ULI®.® (360;S6UU — qL_fiDSU 
/BfiV3 SUllSljTli 

;b(5 — Q^iflu^ih 


15. KANNAMMA-EN KADALI— 1 

Chiittum vizhi sudardan— Kannamma ! 

stiriya chandiraro ? , 

Vatta-k kariyavizhi— Kanjaamma ! 

vana-k karumai kollo ? 

Pattu-k karunila-p — pudavai , 
paditta nal yayiram 
Natta nadunisiyil— teriyum 
nakshattirangalaiji ! 



77 


15. KANNAMMA, MY BELOVED — 1 

Are your bright eyes, Kannamtna, 
the sun and the moon ? 

Aren’t your black round eyes 
steeped in the black of the sky ? 

Isn’t your diamond-studded 

dark blue silk saree 

the midninght heavens dotted 

with stars ? 1 



78 

Gffn&u uisoGljrrstFIGujrr — a_s3r^ 
arjB^irij L/sSrsorsma^/rffljr? 

/geUcSdBL-Sb <;:9j&0(2lU — ®_62irgj 

(SaTsuds 0u51(o6V)Tsaja= — a_saTgi 
(^[Tsdsar jgjsaflsMLCUJia . ! 

6UiT&x3a0ui(f]ujLo — asoOTsoaiiiio/r f 

Ln0sui4 aT^6b QaTfio&rCci-rfr. 2 

o 


Solai malaroliyo— unadu 

sundara-p punnagaidan ? 

Nila-k kadal alaiye — unadu 
nenjil alaigaladl ! 

Kola-k kuyil osai— unadu 
kuralin inimaiyadl ! 

Valai'k kumariadi — Kannamma ! 

maruva-k kadal konden. 2 


O 



79 


Is your bright smile the lustre of 
garden flowers ? 

Are the throbbings of your heart 
the waves of the sea ? 

The lovely cuckoo’s warble has 
the sweetness of your voice. 

You, virgin in bloom, Kannamma, 
I long to embrace you. 




80 


16. 6T6k srr^6\Sil - 2 

c^iiiau GluiQjj^^ ffTfiSr i3lsiTqp^^(Ssc, 

r^srrsu^^ jSlmQiosar^ ^S!minssip<3i^Qsu, 
u/r/fijdEsaflsb sro«u5)/rfflRjr(5Lb ^siAriq. ^j6lfi(S;SSir 
ULl(5stnL_ ff»?*«LDy: ^sSrsaflsl) ^jiSjbG^SsSt ; 
g>fSid0 «U0ui £_«yfi5)<a r3i/&jb(S’Ssir ; 

spil^Lb ^ IT soar ^ilti}.6b ^j&jiGfiSiT; 

“oXjfifaidB sj5)i_ir^ OTJdBsinuj sju^ dBsaarsotnLCLDiiJ 

UDITUjli ffT6Uff)L_;S^«tl?” STffljra)/ QuiTifijbGjS. 2 


16. KANNAMMA-EN KADALI— 2 


Anga-p pozhudil en pinpurattile, 

alvandu ninrenadu kanmaraikkave, 

Panginil kaiyirandum tindi arinden, 

pattudai visukamazh tannil arinden ; 

Ongi varum uvagai utril arinden 

ottum irandulattin tattil arinden ; 

“Vangi vidadi kaiyai edi Kannamma ! 

mayam evaridattil”? enru mozhinde. 2 



16. KANNAMMA, MY BELOVED — 2 


Suddefily two hands closed 
my eyes from behind- 

I knew from the touch of the familiar hands, 
I knew from the smell the fragrance 
of the silken clothings, 

I knew from the inner joy, 

I knew from the throbs of two hearts 
beating in unison. 

“Take off your hands, O Kannamma,” 

I said, “this magic-spell 
does not work on me.” 






82 

sj)5iSa'jlsb <3|swsfr eroas^sciidSCiUJ, 

^Q^sSl “oisorsar Qffirsu’* ffrsdi (SpsijT; 

“Q/6/P^;5 ;£l6»j(sai_s0sb srssjesr sstAnq-ilL-nuj? 
jSso 6)5)(Siii)i?tfaflsroi_ ersirffijr aRRjn^-ili-Tiu ? 

^ODjuSlsoflsajL^ sTsSrfisr Asmiq.LLi—Tuj^ 

(#lsorfiDr(i (^iB^asiFleb eroirear <3SS!Arii).ili_(ruj ? 
i3iif>^^ iSrf}^^ CcLoaij) 

Giuibp jBSciiij<xsrr stsotsst? Gu*^” STsjT(ii^str, 3 


Siritta oliyil aval kaivilakfciye, 

tirumi-t tazhuvi “enna seyidi sol” enren ; 

“Neritta tirai-k kadalil enna kandittai ? 
nila visumbinidai enna kandittai ? 

Tiritta nuraiynidai enna kandittai ? 

chinna-k kumizhigalil enna kandittai ? 

Pirittu-p pirittu nidam megam alande, 
petra nalangal enna ? pesudi” enral. 


3 



83 


While she laughed, 

1 removed her hands 

and turning embraced her, 

and asked her, “What is it ?” 

“What did you see in the crashing waves ?” 

“What did you see in the blue sky ?” 

“What did you see in the churning foam of the 

waves ?” 

“What did you see in the tiny bubbles ?” 

“What have you learnt by scanning 

the shapes of ever-changing clouds every day ?’* 

“Tell me”, she said. 3 




84 


J'sKj dBLfflflsb /gl^ar iXsabrGusSr; 

/Ssc si 5 l*ibiSlsnf) 63 H_ jSlsar^ynaLD <xsih(Si~siT ; 

g/si»!ru5l5af)5!nL_ jfilsiir (ip<su) asDarffi—Sor ; 
iflsirssr<i 0ij51i^<s5iflib ^Ssor^ipaii dG60?ri (?L_6jr ; 

(oiraii ^istrihCSfi, 

'Qu/DiD^53r (tfi<sLcsir 0 tSl^iSlQ^sirsar'^sb&u; 

<#l(fl;S^ «j)si6lu5!ffifflsti tLSar oSlsoidBGuJ, 

^0Lfl^ ^(i^siSuj^eu ;§®jr (yiaii iSstrarCeL— «5r . 4 

o 


“Nerittatirai-k kadalil ninmugam kanden ; 
nila visumbinidai ninmugam kanden ; 

Tiritta nuraiyinidai ninmugam kanden ; 

chinna-k kumizhigalii ninmugam kanden ; 

Pirittu-p pirittu nidam megam ajande, 
petradun mugamanri piridonrillai ; 

Siritta oliyinil un kaivilakkiye, 

tirumi-t tazhuviyadil ninmugam kanden.” 4 


O 



85 


i 1 i the crashing waves I saw your face, 
in tbe blue heavens 1 saw your face, 
in the churning foam 1 saw your face, 
in the' tiny bubbles I saw your face, 
in the clouds 1 scanned every day, I saw 
your face and nothing else. 

When I turned and embraced you, 
while you laughed, again I saw nothing 
but your face. 


4 



17. aOTWtfwirfiW - crCTr 


Li(ifiS)SI3^u(oUTM — QsustflCSiu 
<3ri_ir siSlsrri'dS&ifruGu/rsb, 
jSs^i— Qu/r(i£^Td5 — ffTfiar^ 

dh.ROT(3)<t ifisrflldl&OTU (flUTSb — ^SoflsiDLO 
Q<Sfr£l:OT0 L^dB6\|U) QjQ6li;5(S;£SSr ; 
<2ftJS3jjr0ii Qu/r0Sbtr ffiebsoirii — lcsot^ 

6lSUp;S^ SiSIlIl. ;S*flL f 


17. KANNAN-EN KADALAN 

Tundil puzhuvinai-p p51 — veliye 
sudar vijakkinai-p p61 

Ninda pozhudaga — enadu 
nenjam tudittadadT ! 

Kundu-k kiliyinai-p pol — tanimai 
kondu migavum nonden ; 

Vendum poiulai ellam— manadu 
veruttu vittadadi ! 



17. KANNAN, MY LOVER 


Like the worm on a fishing-hook 
like the trembling flame of a lamp 
left in the open, 

my heart throbs as the time passes. 
Like a parrot in a cage 
I suffer loneliness. 

I hate all the things that 
I once desired. 




iBL^susrffq Q<3^sbsos)Sl6bS^ — ! 

su/D-idBii QdsrrsherrsiSlA&o, 
msauTiii ei5l(5iius^6b2bu — iffdSSiu I 
tflsuir i51t().aasi5l(su&0. 

@«3artii SL-S))^u!il6b&c — sr0§j^ih 
@j^UULb ! 

iSBSOTrctpii a_6fr6Tr;S^Co6o — 

<ST«jor<i dSfiiDu^;a^6tSsu • 


Unavu sellavillai— sakiye ! 

urakkam kojlavillai, 
Manam virumbavillai — sakiye! 

malar pidikkavillai . 
Gunam urudi illai — edilum 
kuzhappam vandadadl ; ! 
Kanamum u Haiti le — sugame 
kaha-k kidaittadillai. 



0 my friend, 

1 am averse to food. 

I cannot sleep either. 

I don’t care for flowers. 

I feel unsteady. 

I am confused. 

There is no peace in my mind, 
even for a split second. 


(SSOTS^j iisbbri— “ !P([5 JBirsfr 

(S;aTOTr(2JU36b, 

^sarii s^s(T/]fijas^6\:iftu ffTsvjCS(SB) 

CT'ffliratrdBii Glj^riLQ oShLu-irsar. 
stSlsureuA ixstrar svSlj^^CS^«sr — a^iSlCiu f 
(oLosaf) uissifiofiSt fiSlt-^LirsSr ; 
LCSSTv^sb LDL-l^-^CeLO — q^CS^S'JlT 
<s5«)bn_^tia. f 


Kanavu kandadile — orunal 
kannukku-t tonramal, 

Inam vilangavillai — evano 
ennagam tottu vittan. 
Vinava-k kanvizhitten — sakiye ! 

meni marainduvittan ; 
Maiiadil mattilume — pudidor 
magizhchi kandadadi ! 



91 


Once in my dream 

someone, entered my heart unnoticed. 

I did not know who it was ! 

I wanted to know who it was 
and woke up. 

But my friend, he vanished, 

I felt a new thrill of happiness 

in my heart ! 5 




92 

E_j(#l ! — iSFdBCoUJ ! 

®L_L_iiq (Sj^rrrddr. 

— (ifisSrE^ uHuirsv 
u3S3r^g/<± I 

^#60)3= 

^sSruii 6^&iTjs^^i&. 

^<j<rii — a^SQuji] 

o 


Uchchi kulimdadadil-sakiye ! 
udambu rierachchu. 

Machchilum vidumellam — munnai-p pol 
manattukkottadadi ! 

Ichchai pirandadadi !— edilum 
inbam vilaindadadi ! 

Achcham ozhmdadi !— sakiye ! 

azhagu vandadadi ! 6 


O 



93 


My mind became cool. 

0 friend, I felt absolutely fresh. 

1 loved everything in every corner 
of my home. 

Desires rushed back to me, 

I felt joy in everything. 

I was no longer scared of anything. 

There was beauty in everything, everywhere. 6 



94 


18. r£)6Dib 


dBirsorf) (DSij«3!jr(5lii, -- 

iSB/rtfrofI ;61«ULb (Jsu53!jT(5lt£ ; — ^n5j@ 

^TsatfflA ^yidStLi^TOj — rbskimi—ihissh 
^lijuj ;gl;D^^«ir^TiLJ — 
dB/rSOuf) jSlSO^f£!i!J)L^(Suj — gflT LD/rsrflsOJdB 
<sC.iq.fi fiif G«iL/6o5jr(5>ii ; — ,3jfij^<s 
<5<i6a3fl ^(i^dSsafKSso — QfisarS^LD!r<Si 

i£jbs>iii ^6ir;g0tx). 1 


18. KANINILAM 


Kani nilam vendum — Parasakti 
kani nilam vendum}— angu 
Tunil a^hagiyadai— nanmadangal 
tuyya nirattinadai— anda-k 
Kani nilattidaiye— or maligai 
katti-t tar a vendum ; — angu 
Keni aruginile— tennai mara-k 

kitrum ilanirum. 1 



95 


18. A PIECE OF LAND 

O Parasakti, do let me have a piece of land. 

Get me a palace of immaculate white, built storey 

upon storey, on beautiful columns. 
There must be a well nearby and 
some coconut trees with tender coconuts and leaves. 1 



ussrsofl/rsaar® — Q^mS^injiii 
u<i<3s^^Gso Gffu^juj ; — jBsbso 
(yD^gilc? i5ri_(f(oUfrG5U — ^/soirCIsufTSirfi 
(tfiSoTL) SDjGsyj^/jih ; — c5J'W0, 
(<5u51GsoT6[na= -* sfiQjD svjjb^I 
eEtr^sli uL_ Gsu^yii — stsst/dsot 
cFl^jSib m<£l ^fi^uGsu _ /B«3i’(25u5’6TrL£) 
Gi^sarjoAi 6v//rG6i> gg)i i2i. 


Pattu pannirandu — tennai maram 
pakkattile venum;-nalla 
Muttu sudarpole — nilavoli 

munbu vara venum ; — angu-k 
Kattum kuyilosai— chatre vandu 
kadil padavenum— enran 
Chittam magizhndidave — nanrayilam 
tenral vara venum. 



97 


At least ten or twelve- coconut trees 
should be there around the place. 

Let the lustrous pearly showers of the moon beam, 

light up the front yard, 

and let the sweet strains of the cuckoo flow into 

my ears, 

And gentle southern breeze thrill my heart with joy. 2 



98 

UTil0d5 _ ^mjCgas ^0 

u^jSsaflu Qusaor Gen satni d) — ffinuissfr 
aLLl(3l'S <zsTfluS)£arf)(S50 ixs^soi^ixsir 

Qairaror® j»rQftJ 6ziff)n j — ^jbjSA 
ariLQ 6l6ustfIuSI«Bfl<3fit) — f^ihLoirl jSIsStjosSt 
arftjsy>jn Qaj ggju j — sTrfrpsor 

^/bjijMtnQso — ^disa^siiuj^isaa;^ 
uTSi5A.^i-(fl sii s^/ tj . 3 


O 


Pattu-k kalandidave— ange oru 
pattini-p pen venum — engal 
Kuttu-k kaliyinile kavidaigal 
kondu taravenum — anda-k 
Kattu veliyinile— amma! ninran 
kavalura venum — enran 

Pattu-t tirattale— ivvaiyattai-p 3 

palittida venum. 


O 



99 


Let me have a chaste woman to sing in tune with me. 
Let poems blossom forth in our mutual joy. 

O mother, shield me from danger 
in that retreat, 

while my poems redeem the world. 3 




100 


19. Q^n’6b60L^ 


jB^ecG^irir si7&!rar Q<riu(S^ — z3tsn^ 

jSsvrijQdBL. /-/(i^^uSsb ^j&sv^smCSi—ir? 
QdFTSUSUlI}- <#)61/<ydB^ ! — ST&STff 

<»i_/fLfl@Lb ^ij&siji—air uss)L^^^siSltLi—iruJ, 
sususcfiDLO fiirjitCStiiT — 

LDITjSlSOlb UlUgy/D SUTJpSU^pC?®? 
Q^Tebsut^., c^lsu <3F<®^ ! — ^60(j 

(ftfiaiLoQujsor enirifiib^L- Lj/f1@6!»fivj(Juj(r ? 

O 

19, SOLLADl SIVASAKTI ! 

Nallador vinai seyide — adai 

nalankeda-p puzhudiyil erivadundo ? 
Solladi Sivasakti !— enai 

sudar migum arivudan padaittu vittai 
Vallamai tarayo — inda 

manilam payanura vazhvadarke ? 
Solladi.Sivasakti ! — nila-ch 

chumaiyetia vazhndida-p puriguvaiyo ? 

O 


1 



101 


19. TELL ME O SHIVA SHAKTI 


Will any one make an excellent 
Veena and throw it in the dust to rot ? 

Tell me. Shiva Shakti, 

you have created me 

and given me luminous intelligence. 

Will you not give me strength 

to work for the betterment of the world? 

Will you curse me to become a burden on earth ? 1 



102 


20. ^fibsorr 

c5/5U6or, 53|susoir, ^lAsorl 

uebsoiruSjii usbeuiniSfrii (SsTtij. (SaTii}. c 5 |swrL_(BJ«sfr 
CTsusoir^ ^6mffiL'ilgaib g>f ffrsu&uuSsbsWT Qwsrflsvj/rsijflCoju 
jgIstsuTg/ <5ry34Sr<o(7r5U jSliuLoti Q(jiij^06fr /Eiriuixsir 
0ffirsv)sti(rgj/i£) uisar^fir^Lh Q;SirL_0jrfr(^;5 Qu0Cg(o(y(r^! 

(.^sbsuT, ^^jsbsoir, ^ebevir!) 

1 

20. ALLAH 
Allah, Allah, Allah ! 

Palayiram palayiram 
kodi kodi andangal 
Ella-t tisaiyilum or 
ellaiyilla velivanile 
Nilladu chuzhanroda 

niyamam seyidarul nayagan 
Sollalum manattalum 

todaronada perunjdti ! 1 

(Allah, Allah, Allah 1) 



20. ALLAH 


Allah! Allah! Allah! 

He is the power behind 

the ceaseless movement of millions upon 

millions of galaxies in infinite space. 

He is the Light of the Uijiverse ! 

Far beyond our thoughts. 

Far beyond our words. 

Allah, Allah, Allah ! 



104 


ca6l)suTjSsmrn~u3l 6a}i tb flL.«a5jr6!nu3 QffTsuso/r^ssujTuSIguLb 
Quit 6U so ir^6n (T IT u51 sg)i tii ^suih ^sOsofTjSsi/jff ufilgjjti 
/5s5:sUT0soaj jS ^u3lsir uiq. /SlAevir/SsuriTu^^iij] 
STStsofTcgii Sij;6G^;£^Li ^sirsiSleb ujlquuju) Qat-j 

Q<riuusu5i}r. 

(^isvsoir, sS|5t)sv)/r, c^sbsuir!) 


O 


2 


Kalladavarayinum 

ur^niai solladavarayinum 
Polladavarayinum 

tavam illadavarayinum 
Nallarurai nidiyinpadi 
n illadavarayinum 
EUarum vandettum ajavil 

yama bhayam keda seyibavan. 2 

(Allah, Allah, Allah 1) 


O 



105 


Even men and women 

who are not educated, 

even those who don’t practise truth, 

even those who are wicked, 

even those who don’t do their penance, 

even those who don’t pay any heed to the sayings of 

the wise, 

all, all, praise and pray to Him ! 

He destroys the fear of death in all. 

Allah, Allah, Allah ! 


2 


106 


21. (fiUJSr 

“pT'JsSr cflgSjsiosijuSeb loirs^i—irsir, 

e~ uSIfr^^6OT63r jsirsir 6^0 ^sSf/5l^ 

(ojB'yi£)(r Loflujir LCc5^<o6u;6(r 

GjbflCSsc ^,11^3= G}<3tLj^ssiiu <56tj!jri_irsfr. 

jgl^sor fi_Ll'Sluir0sfr GassrPt j 
G^svif sdjB^ ;blc<s0ot l/@/bG#S 
jb^f^iBssr jSl fisnLD dsiruuirif, 

jBih ;^a;6SCD^6iJ)iu jBuih Gla/j sorgysiSlilL/rsb, 1 

O 

21. YESU KIRISTU 

‘Isan vandu siluvaiyil mandan, 

ezhundu uyirttanan nal oru munril’ 

Nesa mamariya Magdalena 

nerile inda seyidiyai-k kandah 
Desattir ! idan utporul— kelTr ; 

devar vandu namakkul pugunde 
Nasaminri namai nittam kappar, 

nam agandaiyai nam konru vittal. 1 


O 



107 


21. JESUS CHRIST 

He died on the cross. 

He came to life three days later. 

Maria Magdalen the compassionate was 

witness to this. 

My countrymen ! Listen to the inner meaning of 

this event : 

God will enter our hearts and protect us 
from all evils, every day, if we 

destroy our egotism, our arrogance. 1 







108 


22. urrtr^ a^dP^muib 


UfTjT^ J(y3^TUJLh SUII^<sGsnI - SIIT^<3S SUT^ds! 
uiT^fi <f(y^^TUJii suiripaCesu! ^tu ^lu g^iu! 

(UTlTfS) 

(ipuug) Gairiif. gQ6ariij<xstPsirs^iij<xm 
(y](;if«nLn<5(gii Qurgj a_s!»L-6KL£) 
epui^lsoif^ a=(yi^irujti 

e_sudS;Sgj<iQi»T0 qgiSTOLD- siiir^<s ! 

(uitJiSb) 


22 . BHARATA SAMUDAYAM 


Bharata samudayam vazhgavel-vazhga vazhga! 

Bharata samudayam vazhgave ! jaya jaya jaya ! 

(Bharata) 

Muppadu k5di janangalin sangam 
muzhumaikkum podu udamai 
Oppilada samudayam 

ulagattukkoru pudumai — vazhga! 

(Bharata) 



09 


22. BHARAT SAMUDAYAM 

Long live Bharat Samudayam ! 

Long live the victorious Samudayam ! 
All the thirty crores of us 
holding all property in common, 
our society will have no equal 
and be a wonder to the whole world. 

Long live Bharat Samudayam, 

Long live the victorious Samudayam 


■'ri'Vi 






110 


UDsafl^ir ®_sn!jrstn5u ucsafl^ir uj&A^ld 
sujpiasiA ^safliq«rarCS«_T? 

LDsifflj^rr G^rdi Lcsofl^/f uiriiii^ih 

njfr jJiAsai* ^«ifliLj6OTrC*i_iT ? - qeusoflsu 
sufrjpAsro* ^srtfliL/fflOTGi_ii? - 
cuT^<£s9)ds ^stfFliLisiAi Gt^ir? ^ auj^<3Bl 

(uirirfi) 


Manidar unavai manidar parikkum 
vazhakkam iniyundo ? 

Manidar noga manidar parkkum 
vazhkkai iniyundo? — pulanil 
vazhkkai iniyundo ? — nammil anda 
vazhkkai iniyundo ? — vazhga ! 


(Bharata) 



Ill 


Can men snatch the bread away 
from other men any longer ? 

Can men watch their fellowmen 
suffer any longer ? 

Are such things possible in this country any longer ? 

Long live Bharat Samudayam. 

Long live the victorious Samudayam. 



112 


glsiffluj Ouir^stasfr Qjsiq-uj fiuoJsbdssJr 
CT6o5jT({iror(75ii (Slu0 jEir($ ; 
tSSsfliLfiii ;sirsaflujiij<s^u) 

S6midSlsST^^<£(i^ j5irQ ~ 
6Ssm<s<£lsirjSl^i£(!5 jBirQ — jSl^SjSii 

issaar A'£l6ir jBfr®— su/r^ds/ 


Iniya pozhilgal nediya vayalgal 
ennarum peru nadu-, 

Kaniyum kizhangum daniyangalum 
kanakkinri-t taru nadu — idu 
kanakkinri-t taru nadu — nitta nittam 
kanakkinri-t taru nadu — vazhga ! 


1 

(ujirfi) 


1 

(Bharata) 



113 


Ours is the most beautiful country. 

Here we have vast fields and arbours. 

This land of ours yields countless 
fruits, roots and crops. 

Long live Bharat Samudayam. 

Long live the victorious Samudayam. 


1 


114 


^55fl<olujT(|5 s3i^ Qffiij(2su/ni — 
sTjh^ jbfKSQih airijCoUTii) • 
;Ssirf)QujT0stig)jd5ig a_«Rirs^&w0iijs5flsu 

euir^ix! 


Iniyoru vidi seyivom — adai 
enda nalum kappom; 

Tani oruvanukku unavilai enil 

jagattinai azhittiduvom— vazhga ! 


2 

(uT/r^) 


2 

(Bharata) 



115 


Let us make a law and guard it for ever ; 

we will destroy the world 

that let’s even a single man starve. 

Long live Bharat Samudayam. 

Long live the victorious Samudayam. 2 




116 


ffrsbsoir^ii ©ir ^soLb ffrsbsoir^ii ^flsurii 
sT6bsoTC5ii ^j^/SujT mciasfr, 

5T6bso(r0ib Sfif jSIsmjD sreusuT^ib g>/r 5i?&u 
CTsbsu(r0ii ^jbjetlL(^ insSrssrif — jBuiis 
c 76 bsuir 0 LC ^fijbirLL(^ msSrearir — 

ST6iJsOT0Lb losarsarij- — suryjsil 4 

(un-jr^s) 


O 


Ellarum drkulam ellarura orinam 
Ellarum India makkal, 

Ellarum or nirai ellarum or vilai 
Ellarum innatlu mannar — ^^nam 
Ellarum innattu mannar — am 
Ellarum innattu mannar — vazhga 1 


O 


4 

(Bharata) 



We belong to the same family. 

We belong to the same clan. 

We are all Indians. 

We ate the rulers of this country. 

We are the rulers of this country. 

We are the rulers of this country. 

Long live Bharat Samudayam ! 

Long live the victorious Samudayam ! 




23 . urruurr 


§>14. siS!&(ruj(r(p uTuutr!— jg 

I^iujb;£'(5'43560t<st^ ujuuir! 

<3h.iq. siSl&rrujfr® utijut ! — sp 0 

0y3jB63)^6!r.aj esisuturG^ uituutI 

<flsir6ar(Q <fl^ 00s^ GutCSso — j§ 
^iPjh^l ujDjB^ SUIT uhuujI 

6U6^6ar upj«D«vic®8feTr<35 ««iSt (51 — jS 

ijDsar^sb Q<xirsir(^ uiruur I 


23. PAPPA-P PATTU 


Odi vilaiyadu pappa ! — nl 

oindirukkal agadu pappa ! 

Kudi vijaiyadu pappa ! — oru 
kuzhandaiyai vaiyade pappa ! 

Chinnanj chiru kuruvi pole — ni 
tirindu parandu va pappa ! 

Vanna-p paravaigalai-k kandu — ni 
manadil magizhchi kollu pappa ! 



119 


23. SONG FOR THE CHILD 

Run around and play, my child. 

Never idle away your time. 

Play along with other children, 

and don’t you ever curse a child. 1 

Fly up in the air like the sparrow. 

Jump with joy at the sight of the colourful birds. 2 




uir&cu jscsii uiruur I — 

UcJr u 5J<3B ;B6bsU^liJ. UTUUIT ! 

6un&uis stid^ii jsniu^iTsSr — rSI^ 

ujsaft^rrA^ (S^r^earuf. uiruur I 

dBit&v rr IS ^eqL-sSr ul^ul) — lSsoth 
dBsaflsi^ 0<35fr(5dB®^ ;B6b«o utlI®? 

Lcr&o (Lp(i£0iuo 6i5)2brruJTLl(5) — stsot^ 

fiiJjpdfcdBU u^^^A <ol<3BTsyr(sg uruurl 


Palai-p pozhindu tarum pappa ! anda-p 
pasu miga nalladadi pappa t 

Valai-k kuzhaittu varum naidan — adu 
manidarkku tdzhanadi pappa ! 

Kalai ezhunda udan padippu — pinbu 
kanivu kodukkum nalla pattu ! 

Malai muzhudum vilaiyattu — enru 
vazhakka-p paduttikkojlu pappa ! 



121 


The cow that gives you milk is a very good animal, 
and the dog that wags its tail is always a friend of 

man. 4 

The first thing that you do in the morning, 
my child, is to study. 

And sing afterwards a song that gives you joy. 

And play all through the evening. 

Make this your daily routine, my child. 6 




UT^iSLA (o i3^|£jU6116® ji i5StOTI_irSb — JSITli 

uiuii QarshenAi uiruunl 

Gixir^ si510 uiruuir — ^suif 

(ipd5;a^5t) uiruufT ! 

Gj/riiusti uSasdB uituut ! — /snuJ 

QaT6nr«or Qairsb&o ^il.u.irG<s uiruun I 
0y:/B63)^ Ofiremriq. — jS 
0«fr«^0 (SuTjir^ unuufr ! 


Padagam seyibavarai-k kandal — nam 
■bhayam kollalagadu pappa ! 

Modi midittu vidu pappa — avar 
mugattil umizhndu vidu pappa ! 

Sombal migak-k kedudi — pappa tai 
sonna sollai tattade pappa ! 

Tembi azhum kuzhandai nondi — ni 
tidam kondu p5radu pappa ! 



123 


Be not afraid of evil men, my child. 

Spit in their faces and trample on them. 8 

Laziness is bad, my child ! 

Do as your mother asks you to. 

The crybaby is a lame child, you know. 

So you must fight things out with courage, my child! 10 




124 

<?(rj£'<3Bsfr utulkt I — @6u^ 

e_ujrr(j(fl Q^irsusosb uir«iiii ; 
s_tufj3^ Lo^, assbsiJ— ^ sStlj 
jSlsai/Diu E_sa)mjsij(farfr QtcGsvirif, 15 

O 


Sadigal illaiyadi pappa I — kula-t 
tazhchi uyarchi sollal pavam; 

Niti,uyarnda mati,kalvi — anbu 

>Jiraiya udaiyavargal melor. 15 


O 



125 


There are no castes, my child. 

It is a sin to talk of the high and the low. 

People who are just, wise, learned and loving, 
my child, are the high born. 15 





24. Ou6WT fl5)®^8so 


0 u 6 ab/@lj<*@ oiS)( 5 )^Ssu sTsSr^u ^r&iCSarrrr 

iS)/DUL5^Sv^5;Sffi3r ; Qu^iB (Sserfrr ! 

Lcem OTa); dE('gsyr ffT5ij5ifu5)0Lb Q^iijsuti CTSsrdTjsb 

wSsoTiufK^Li Q^iijsuLC65r(?(n3? lc^ QdBLLia.CSfr! 
6^6007 6og)i d50u u^uugj CoUirsb aBStn^iSsfr QdFirebsiJff , 
Si5l(5l^&u CTSiiTL?/f, ai 0 &ni>r Qsusfrsifrti srsiin^ j,, 

Qu6gaT 6g^i ai0 6 i 5)(5)^^ jSlflsb&D &TlSOT05b 

sa_5Ud3(?6V) eufr^ffisaiiSuSlstj&u. 


24. PEN VIDL'DVLAI 


Pennukku vidudalai enringor niti 

Pirappitteti ; adarkuriya petri kelir ! 
Mannukkul evvuyirum daivam enral 

manaiyalum daivamanro madikettire ! 
Vinnukku-p parappadu p5l kadaigal solvir, 
vidudalai enbir, karunai vellam etibir, 
Pennuku vidudalai nir illai enral 
pin inda ulaginile vazhkkai illai. 



127 


24. WOMEN’S LIBERATION 


The emancipation of women is a 
new law, I have proclaimed. 

Listen to what it is : 

If all the creatures of the world 
are considered gods, 
then isn’t the wife too a goddess, 
you fools ? 

You would talk tall of flying 

in the sky and all that; 

you would go into raptures 

over freedom and compassion; 

but if you deny the liberation of women in our society, 

what kind of life would there be on earth ? 



128 


25. Qu6o^a5Tr 


(^^ihid^L. firoa GlsTilfr}. 0tbiJuJii}-J 
jBihsTiLDU 1^3= rrsrtsssrr GuiruSIsar '• 

j5sirs!DLD a63OT(oL_frui CTairgy 0ixt£lujt4.! 1 

(0Ultflujl<).) 

^LSKi—iqtii QusOTasfr Q;snr(5mjgj ^sodld srsdrg/ 

STSOOTfflRff) LniriujB^ s^5lL.L_/r(f; 

5i7tl(5dB0sfr(?srr Qu«!rar?fei3it!j y,Lli4. ansinjCDUfru) sidrp 
nSljBstn^ UDsafl^f jZlk) aJiSlyjjfe^S'rt 2 

(■0ii)u9iui4.) 

25. PENGAL VIDUDALAI K KUMMI 

Kummiyadi ! tamizhnadu muzhudum 
Kulungida-k kaikotti-k kummiyadi ! 

Nammai-p piditta pisasugaj poyina ! 

Nanmai kandom enru kummiyadi ! fKummiyadi ) 1 

Ettaiyiim pengal toduvadu timai enru 
Enni irundavar maindu vittar; 

Vittukkulle pennai-p putti vaippom enra 

Vindai manidar talai kavizhndar. (Kummiyadi) 2 



25. WOMEN’S LIBERATION DANCE 


Clap, Clap, Clap ! 

Let’s clap our hands 
for all Tamils to hear ! 

Let’s dance and sing 
for all to hear ! 

Gone are the evil spirits that haunted us. 
Better days have dawned for us. 

We have good things coming up. 

Let us clap our hands and dance ! 

Gone are those who thought it wrong 
for women to touch books. 

They were a shame, those odd men. 
They wanted to keep the women 
locked in the house. 

Let us clap our hands and dance ! 



130 


dSflL) jS&v ffrmgji QffTsbso sujB^ir/r, ^0 

(SBilt#lcs@ii <3|a®4^ Qufr^siSst) sa)«iiij(?Uf7ijb 
svj/DLjp^^ Qusaor&OTrdb <3BLltij.<i QcST^a^ib 

6uyjdB®;asi»^^ ^5#rsTfl i£j£'fs^(5(SsiJiiLb, 5 

((giitflujuf.) 

uilunijdBsfr c^shsu^ub ^ilL./]wa6Tr Qjiusu^ii 

udflscflsu Qusobrasrr sujh(S^iTii ; 

STil(3lLb ^//iSlsiJsaflot) ^@)jdBi^ln^(etS (Slusiror 

^&rrLiL5lfil)&u dbfifiolir srsir^ 0iiu9uju}-l 6 

(^LCLflUJiH-) 


o 


Karpu nilai enru solla vandar, iru 
Katchikkum ahdu poduvil vaippom 
Varpurutti pennai-k kattik kodukkumi 
Vazhakkattai-t taUi midittiduvdm. (’Kummiyadi ) 5 

Pattangal alvadum sattangaj seyivadum 
Parinil pengal nadatta vandom; 

Ettum arivinil anukkinge pen 

Ilaippillaikan enru kummiyadi ! (Kummiyadi) 6 


O 



131 


If they talk of the wife’s chastity, 

let it be binding on both husband and wife. 

We will trample upon the practice of 
marrying women without their consent. 

Let us clap our hands and dance ! 5 

We women have come to make laws and rule the 

world ! 

We women are in no way inferior in wisdom to men. 
Let us clap our hands and dance ! 6 



26. L|^6Q)l£U Qu6^ 


jEliBirjs^ ;B63r«jr63)L_ (SfifQdiHsaifru u/r/feaisuiL/Lb 
jSlso^S^sb iUT/rc50ib Qj5;61ffi(g5Lb, 

;£liflir;6;5 (gjirsorff <o)a'0(g50ii ^©uu^irsb 
QffiisrouJ inrfif ^st)&oaj(Tii; 

(euifa^sn-nui ^ijfftuirss'.LCuS'ev 
^suscLh STtu^ ds&uuSlsir/^) suir^siim^s 
e_L 0 ^jB 0 / ^ 6 Tr(ffl 5 ^ 6 b Qusmsasrjo ui/r^iriinb 
®_^uj asorsafi ii_6»piju0i CdBiluiCojir f 


26 . PUDUMAI-P PEN 


Nimirnda nannadai nerkonda parvaiyum 
nilattil yarkkum anjada nerigalum, 
Timirnda jnana cherukkum iruppadal 
semmai madar tirambuvadillaiyam, 
Amizhndu peririilam ariyamaiyil 

avalam eyidi-k kalaiyinri vazhvadai 
umizhndu talludal pennaram agumam 
udaya kanni uraippadu keftTro ! 



26. NEW WOMEN 


133 


They are the ones with queenly gait, and they look 
straight in your eyes. 

They fear nothing on this earth. 

They are proud of their learning. 

Such women are steady, and they never go astray. 

They refuse to get lost in the 
darkness of ignorance. 

They reject with contempt 
the uncultured life and 

all the sufferings it brings. 7 



134 

usu uso diiouiririi); 

&6ifrFlujm]<xsir use use Qjiusvjjrfrii 
Qu/riuewuDasir lUTSifii t^^ijurririi ; 
g/iu<s i3BLl0d5(asfr lUiTSifii ^dSiruujTTii ; 

<sir^^ iLirsaflt—ir QtrujsiCtS ^i&ar^soifitLiii 

aL_si|£rrt<s0 ^safl^ira ffsajixiuuj/rib ; 

.J^SMTLDdaBSTT (oUT^^t_ SUTJfjSUJ’Tli ; 

^&truj jBWsnauSIiar CTStRjrstRjrifiiaBSTr Gailia-Gjir! 9 

o 


Sattirangal palapala karparam,- 

savuriyangaj palapala seyivaram 

Mutta poyimaigal yavum azhipparam, 

muda-k kattukkal yavum tagarpparam; 

Kattu manidar seyigai anaittaiyum 

kadavularku inidaga samaipparam,- 

Etti anmakkal potrida vazhvaram? 

ilaiya nangaiyin ennangal kettlro ! 9 


O 



135 


Many shastras they will learn. 

They will bring more comforts into life. 

They will cast away age-old falsehoods. 

They will destroy all superstitions. 

They will safeguard every human activity 
so that each one becomes the gods' choice. 

They will win admiration of men. 9 



27 - (ipirffi- 


fistOA® (Sl<»/r 6 b(S 6 iis 3 r — 6 TSir< 4 @ 

S-scbremui Qf^irsuGsusir ; 

<f0« ClasbsuTii (ip^ssuir^ii — ^0 

Qfiujsuui gj&rar Q^ajiij Gsiism($ih. 

QxirQsDLCssfr Gsusi&rt-frih — ^sSrLj 
^sarsoflw soisi/iuti ; 

svjT^Gsuirth — tol;£if^st) 
^nSl/rii uDTssiitqrD'f Qa^iiiGsuTii. 


27. MURASU 


Urukku nalladu solven— enakku 
iiijmai terindadu solven 
Sirukkellam mudalagum — oru 
daivam tunai seyiya vendum. 

Sadi-k kodumaigal vencjam — anbu 
tannil chezhittidum vaiyam,- 
Adaravutru ingu vazhvom — tozhil 
ayiram manbura seyivSm. 



137 


27. THE DRUM 


Let me tell someting good to the whole town. 

Let me tell the truth as T know it. 

Let the Almighty come to my help in this. 1 

Let us put an end to the cruelties of the caste system. 

The world will prosper in love- 

Let us help each other in living, 

and excel in numerous trades. 8 



138 


0U6aar^)id5(g (Qrsar^soi^ msij^^rrsar ~ qnSl 
CSusatTfl SiJSfTii pfjsSt ; 

LO«j!jr^)jA(^sfr(cSirr <^sv 0di__t — js^so 

LDT^IJ'l&SaiSlI Q(36(5l^^ff/f. 9 

dssaijrissfr ^/j'smii^safl^ spsaraai^A — 

S'usmasfr ^/ffsoisu evstrir^^r^ — sKwaJii 

<oU;S6®Lc ^pr6l(Bi}i airsOTfif. 10 


Pennukku jnanattai vaittan — bhuvi 
peni valarttidum isan; 

Mannukkulle si la mudar — nalla 

madar arivai keduttar. 9 

Xangal irandinil onrai-k — kutti 
katchi keduttidalamo ? 

Pengal arivai valarttal — vaiyam 
pedamai atridum kanir. 


10 



139 


God gave the power of reasoning to women. 

But some fools on earth stood in their way. 9 

Is it right to put out one eye and 
thus spoil the vision ? 

Women’s intelligence, if nourished, 

will drive away the darkness of ignorance from the 10 

world. 




llJT0Lb U5IJCFfl;B^®*i Q<SIU6 )lJU 3 — 6)UT0Sir 

ujirsiS)^ib jSlsiri&(^Ui Q^iusuii, 

unr0d6@5frG5ifr Q^ojsuii ^sdr^ ; 

upuev Jsabremi—tSBrfr (SsnstArL^rii. 

s_i_s5r i51p;fe^rr(f<K&nu (oUitSsu — 
sijsodSsb LDstsfl^f ffTab6U(r0ii3 
^i—ii) Qu/fl^fflrar® fiDsutu^i^eb — ^j£sb 
5r^<a@ fffiOOTeiDLdBsrr Qs^iusiSit? 


Yarum panindidum daivam -- porul 
yavinum ninridum daivam, 
Parukkulle daivam onrus — idil 
parpala sandaigal vendam. 

Udan pirandargalai-p pole — iv 
ulagil manidarellarum 
Idam_pendundu vaiyattil — idil 
Edukku sandaigal seyivir ? 



141 


All men worship one and the same God, 
who pervades the whole universe. 

God is one, over the wide world; 

no need for conflicts on this score. 13 

Let all men live like brothers in this world. 

We have a world wide enough for everyone to live in. 
Why should we then wage wars ? 21 




142 


6uii31|Dp<s@ 

suir(;i^Lb Lcsofl^fr ffrsbGeu/rircS^ii; 
uu5l/bj3l a-c^g/szror® surr^s^irl- tSipf 

uniiSMas 6su«OTL_frLb. 23 

uT0«@sfrG6rr ^FLo^^sirmLo — Q^rL-it 

^sirsiDm 

ujrr04@iJb ^srotn Qtfujujirgi _ qsiSl 

ffTf^@iii siSI( 5^&\3 Qj^iuu^ib. 29 

o 


Vayitrukku sorundu kandir ! — ingu 
vazhum manidar ellorkkum, 

Payitri uzhudundu vazhvir ! — pirar 

pangai tirududal vendam. 23 

Parukkulle samattanmai — todar 
patrum sagodara-t tanmai 
Yarukkum timai seyiyadu — bhuvi 

engum vidudalai seyiyum. 29 


O 



143 


Make sure that there Is enough 
food for all men on earth. 

Educate people, till your land, 
and live a good life. 

But never you steal other men’s share. 23 

Equality and fraternity for one and all on earth 
will harm no one, 

but liberate the world. 29 



144 


28. Q^tri^eb 


^(§iisiau atriuS^S fi_0(S<®(5)6>7(S/rl 

ujjE^irfij<ssfr 6u@^^(5ls^(o!r I 

aB0ii6i»Uij i3^fi^Qs)3Q!f ! 

«i_<nSlsb jbsar (yj^Q^QiuiSSfr! 

^0iiiqui Gsuifmsu a-^ff^^CiLjsvSKSuDsu 
Q^fjfisv Qd-iu^Qie^G/r! 

Qu(j^im qsjfi SI Lfl<£(s<s ^<a)^<s<£)s^(£;OSi{r 

iSljTLo G^susijr dB&uu5!flij0 /g(?ir! 1 

O 

28. TOZHIL 

Irumbai-k kaichchi urukkMuvire ! 

yandirangal vaguttiduvire ! 

Karumbai-ch charu pizhindi4uvlre ! 

kadalil muzhgi nan mutteduppire ! 

Arumbum vervai udirtu bhuvimel !■ 
ayiram tozhil seyididuvire ! 

Perum pugazh numakke isaikkinren 
biramadevan kalaiyingu nire ! 

O 


1 



145 


28. LABOUR 

Smelt the iron, manufacture machines, 
squeeze the juice out of sugarcanes. 

Dive deep into, the sea and 
fish the pearl out. 

Work hard in thousand and one trades. 

My praises to you. 

You are the creator, like Brahma, on this earth. 1 




146 


29. q^iu (flSrTsrorifiJiSl 


0 ® 0 ® 0 ® 0 ® 0 ® 0 © 0 ® 0 ® ; 

^sbsodBirsoiii 6U0(ggj; ^(tbsu airsuii sij0@gj ; 
a-ir^asfr G<?®gi ; ffocrarstm—asfr Q^ir&uiLjgj ; 
Qtfirsl'suir}., Q<y(r6l'6\:ir}., <y<5B^, LCTdsirsrf I 
(Ssv^ qiJ'^^ir(n^A^ jbAiso(g)i& Qcyfrsbgj/. 1 


29, PUDIYA KONANGI 


Gudugudu gudugudu gudugudu gudugudu, 
Nalla kalam varugudu, nalla kalam varugudu,- 
Sadigal serudu; sandaigal tolaiyudu; 
solladi.solladi, sakti makali, 
Vedappurattarukku, nallakuri sollu. 


1 



147 


29. NEW FORTUNE TELLER 

Gudu gudu gudu gudu gudu gudu gudu gudu 
Happy days ahead for the people ! 

Caste feelings are no more. 

No mote are tliere any conflicts. 1 

Shakti ! Maha Kali ! Speak up 1 

Predict good times for the people of Vedapura ! 



148 


@®@C5i @®@® @(5®© @©0© { 

Gu(r0^, GldFsbsuii su0'^gj, 
uisf-ui^ 6 ijsiE 0 gi, uireuii Q^T&unjg), 
uiij-iffiysusir ^^ti, uirsij(tfiw usoijrsarf'(ra) 5\3 
(SuTeuirsijr, (Sursii,7sar, ggCSujifQsusdr^ CcUTsuirsSr. 2 


Gudugudu gudugudu gudugudu gudugudu, 
Darittiram pdgudu, selvam varugudu, 
Padippu valarudu, pavam tolaiyudu, 
Padichchavan sudum.pavamum panninal, 
Povan.povan.aiyovenru povan. 


- 2 



149 


Poverty is gone. 

Prosperity is in. 

Knowledge is ushered in. 

Sins have vanished in the thin air. 

If the educated try to deceive 

the simple men, they will be ruined in no time. 2 



150 


@©0© @®@© @®@® 0(5i0@ ; 

(§sii0qij-^£l(Ssv siSliUTUd jrii Qu0@^ ; 

Q^rf^sb Qu0@^, Q^ir^soirsrfl simf^suTsir ; 
su6yr0^; Q^ffliijgj ; 

ujjB^/rii Qu00g/; susfr(§^ ; 

LDjB^SjQuiebsuirLi) 6iJ6Tr0^, su6rr0^ . 3 

o 


Gudugudu gudugudu gudugudu guduguduj 
Vedapurattile vyaparam perugudu; / 

Tozhil perugudu, tozhilaji vazhvanj 
Sattiram valarudu; suttiram teriyudu; 

Yantiram perugudu, tantiram valaruduj 

Mantiram ellam valarudu, valarudu. 3 


o 



151 


Commerce and industry are being learnt. 

Workers flourish. 

Shastras and skills are being learnt. 

Fear is gone. Justice prevails. 

The hour of awakening is come 

The magic of incantations is working all around us. 3 


152 


30. gUJ durfl^Q)® 

(Suff)6®<3s Q<3BTLl.ui-,ir! — 
gjiu Guifls®* 

(ST<a«n<3B 0(05151 6T/Sj«sfr gjrr^ — jSstr 
<xi-32/ii] srriiiSSir <3h.Lluu) 

(5;6T(3B0U) jBiruissrrSl (o5Urt51sb&o 

(J/Birads C/BTdBdB asifliUirCi-uj. 3 

O 


30. JAYABERIGAI 

Jaya Berigai kottada ! — kottada ! 
Jaya Berigai kottada ! 

Kakkai kuruvi engal jati — nila 

kadalnm malaiyum engal kuttam 
N5kkum disaiyelam ham anri verillai 
nokka nokka-k kaliyattam. 

O 


3 



153 


30. THE DRUM OF VICTORY 

Beat the drum of victory. 

Beat the drum of victory. 

The crow and the sparrow 
are our kins, 

and so are mountains and oceans. 

Whichever way we look, we see none but ourselves ! 
The more we gaze and gaze, 

the greater is our ecstasy. 3 



154 


31. ^rr^uj Qi7r5^L61i^ 

suT^uj QirtB^LSyp! evirffid^ .' 

euT^uj UTir^S LC6aafi^^(i^jBir(^! 

^sarQjDsaiLD 6ii0^^tii ^sSrsursbdBsn LCTUuai 
JBS!}r$B)U3 SiJ^Q;SlLJ^*l ^Sl^SOfTli JBS0<3S! 
.^pii SiJirrfj50($i'3t‘ Lcpuj LDiq.sif^<m! 
r^ifliu jBrrLLtqearf r£ii}St^es>Lj:)(Suiiriq.iujD^ii) 
<^ff)uj (ifiiUfi)<fl3isrr LS<3s(SdiTiij^<s! 

jbj3(S^<^^^6arf fiiTQi-.irg)iu) e-^ujf<as! 

sujsCSjS uxTfStT'-b I suibCd^ Lo/r^irii I 

o 

31. VAZHIYA SENTAMIZH 

Vazhiya sentamizh ! Vazhga natramizhar ’ 
Vazhiya Bharata mani-t tirunadu ! 

Inremai varuttum innalgal maiga ! 

Nanmai vandeyiduga ! Tidelam naliga ! 
Aram valarndiduga ! Maram madivuruga ! 
Ariya nattinar anmaiyodiyatrum 
STriya muyarchigal, sirandu mikkongUga 1 
Nandesatinar nadorum uyarga ! 
Vandemataram ! Vandemataram ! 

O 



155 


31. LONG LIVE CHASTE TAMIL ! 


Long live chaste Tamil ! 

Long live the good Tamils ! 

Long live the precious land of Bharat ! 

May the miseries that afflict us 
come to an end ! 

May we attain excellence ! 

May all evils vanish ! 

May virtue thrive ! and sin die ! 

May the noble deeds of the heroic people 
of this land bear fruits ! 

May our countrymen march ahead for ever I 
Vandemataram I Vandemataram 1 




NOTES 


Sentamizh Nadu (Our Land of Sweet Tamil) 

Kaveri, Pennai, Porunai and Vaigai are the names of rivers. 

Virgin goddess- refers to Kanyakuman. 

Thirumalai is the famous Vaishnavite centre of pilgrimage. 

Kamban was the ancient Tamil poet who composed the Ramayana in 
Tamil. 

Valluvar was the ancient Tamil poet who composed the famous 
Thirukural 

Silappadikaram (Story of the Anklet) is an ancient Tamil epic. 

Tayin Manikkodi (The Precious Flag of Mother India) 

In this poem, written in 1909, Bharati visualized a’ national flag. It 
showed Indra’s thunderbolt {vajra) on one side, crescent moon of Islam 
on the other side and Vande Mataram in between. This was long before 
the Indian National Congress adopted the tricolour flag. 

Bhirata DMam (Bharat Desh) 

Avvai, referred to in the original poem as ‘daughter of Tamil’, was a 
famous poetess of Tamil in ancient times. 

Vidudalai (Liberation) 

The Paraiahs, the Tiyas, the Pulaiyas, the Paravas, the Kuravas and 
the Maravas were some of the oppressed castes. 

Sutantira-p Pallo (A Fallu of Freedom) 

Pallu IS a folk song sung by the Pallas, one of the oppressed castes. 

Pudiya Rushiya (New Russia) 

This poem was written soon after the Russian Revolution of 1917 . 



fVuncllofEd'-^ 

’obindo F 

Kannamma-En Kadu nnamma, My Beloved— 1), Kannamiiia- 

En Kadali— 2 Jima, My Beloved— 2) and Kannan-Eo 

Kadalan (Kanaan, My Lover) 

These three poems are taken from Bharati’s Kannan Patlu (Kannan 
Songs), a collection of 23 songs in which Bharati sang of Kannan 
(Krishna) as lover, beloved (as Kannamma), father, mother, child, god, 
goddess, king, disciple, friend and servant. 

Bhhrata Samuddyam (Bharat Samudayam) 

In this poem, written in 1920, Bharati sang of the rise of a new India 
a samudayam or community of 30 crore people (the population of India 
at that time). 

Peqgal Vidudalai-k Kummi (Wonien’s Liberation Dance) 

Kummi in the original poem refers to a girls’ dance which is accompa- 
nied by singing and clapping of hands to tune. 

Morasu (The Drum) 

The drum, Murasu of the title, was used to invite people to listen to 
important announcements and proclamations. 

Fudiya KSnangi (New Fortune Teller) 

Gudugudu here refers to the sounds of tambourine used by beggars 
who also told fortunes. Bharati uses this popular folk figure in this 
poem to foretell the coming of a new world.